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Table 1 List of neurorehabilitation principles with description established by Maier et al. [11, 16]

From: Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a meta-analysis

Neurorehabilitation principle Description Fulfilled in studies (%)
All studies  +   = 
Massed practice Tasks aiming to increase the number of repetitions performed 81 79 85
Dosage Intensive training: more than a daily session of 60 min on every weekday 52 59 38
Structured practice Training that includes periods of rest 26 31 15
Task-specific practice Functional training relevant to ADL 100 100 100
Variable practice Training that includes different types of tasks 98 97 100
Multisensory stimulation Training that provides more than two types of sensory feedback 83 90 69
Increasing difficulty Complexity of tasks changes depending on participants’ ability, performance or time 76 76 80
Explicit feedback Training that provides information about the patient’s performance at the end of the task 79 93 46*
Implicit feedback Training that delivers information about the performance in real time such as visualization of movement or other kinematic properties 74 83 54
Avatar representation Embodied training by representation of a human or body part 38 41 31
Use of the paretic limb Promoting the use of the paretic limb 76 76 80
  1. All studies, 42 included in meta-analysis
  2.  + , studies with SMD in favour of the experimental group for main outcomes regarding upper limb function
  3.  = , studies with SMD in favour of the control group for main outcomes regarding upper limb function
  4. *Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in Fischer’s exact test