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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: Serious games for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: a meta-analysis

Author Participantsa Ageb Stroke stage Type of device PEDro score
Adomaviciene [51] 42 64.6 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Ang [52] 21 54.2 Chronic Haptic Knob robotic system, LCD monitor 6
Aprile [53] 224 69.5 Subacute 4 different robotic devices 6
Askin [54] 38 55.0 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Brunner [40] 120 62.0 Subacute Motion capture gloves, LCD monitor 7
Cameirao [55] 19 61.0 Subacute Motion capture system, data gloves, LCD monitor 5
Cameirao [56] 44 62.0 Chronic Motion capture system, data gloves, LCD monitor 6
Cho [57] 38 60.0 Chronic End-effector robot, LCD monitor 8
Choi [58] 24 61.0 Subacute Smartphone and tablet computer 6
Crosbie [59] 18 60.0 Chronic Immersive VR motion tracking system 8
Dehem [14] 45 67.3 Subacute End-effector robot, LCD monitor 7
Duff [60] 21 68.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Henrique [61] 31 76.0 Chronic Immersive VR motion tracking system 5
Housman [62] 28 55.0 Chronic Robotic exoskeleton, LCD monitor 5
Hung [13] 33 58.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 7
Jang [63] 10 57.1 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Jo [64] 29 64.0 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Kim [65] 23 53.5 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 8
Kiper [66] 80 64.0 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Kiper [67] 44 64.3 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Kiper [46] 136 63.9 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Klamroth-Marganska [68] 73 56.5 Chronic Robotic exoskeleton, LCD monitor 8
Kottink [32] 18 61.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Kwon [69] 26 57.5 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Laffont [44] 51 58.0 Subacute Touchscreen interface, computer monitor 8
Lee [70] 26 67.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 8
Lee [71] 18 71.1 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Lee [72] 30 51.0 Chronic End-effector robot, LCD monitor 6
Levin [73] 12 58.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Liao [74] 20 54.5 Chronic End-effector robot, LCD monitor 7
Mugler [75] 32 58.0 Chronic Surface EMG-controlled sensor, computer monitor 6
Nijenhuis [76] 19 60.0 Chronic Arm support system 6
Norouzi-Gheidari [39] 18 49.9 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 7
Ogun [77] 65 60.6 Chronic Immersive VR motion tracking system 6
Oh [17] 31 55.0 Chronic 3-D manipulator, computer monitor 7
Park [33] 25 52.5 Chronic 2-D planar motion handlebar, LCD monitor 7
Piron [78] 36 65.2 Chronic Motion capture camera, computer monitor 7
Piron [47] 47 60.5 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 8
Prange [79] 68 59.1 Subacute Arm support system, computer monitor 7
Rogers [80] 21 64.4 Subacute Touchscreen mega-tablet 6
Schuster-Amft [81] 54 61.3 Chronic Motion capture gloves, LCD monitor 8
Shin [82] 16 49.3 Subacute Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Shin [83] 32 54.0 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 6
Shin [84] 46 58.5 Chronic Motion capture gloves, LCD monitor 7
Subramanian [85] 32 61.0 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 7
Thielbar [86] 14 56.5 Chronic Pneumatically actuated motion capture gloves 6
Thielbar [87] 20 59.7 Chronic Motion capture system, LCD monitor 5
Tomic [88] 26 57.4 Subacute End-effector robot, LCD monitor 7
Wolf [89] 99 56.9 Chronic End-effector robot, computer touch screen 7
Yin [90] 23 58.3 Subacute Motion capture system, computer monitor 6
Zondervan [91] 17 59.5 Chronic Motion capture gloves, computer monitor 6
  1. LCD monitor, liquid–crystal display monitor; 3-D, 3-Dimensional; 2-D, 2-Dimensional
  2. aParticipants: number of total participants in study
  3. bAge: mean age in years estimated for total number of participants included in each study