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Table 3 Group means (SD) for the kinematic variables

From: How many trials are needed in kinematic analysis of reach-to-grasp?—A study of the drinking task in persons with stroke and non-disabled controls

Kinematic variables Non-disabled (n = 44) Stroke (n = 8)
Dominant arm Non-dominant arm More affected arm
Temporal and end-point kinematics
Total movement time (MT) (s) 6.0 (0.9) 6.2 (0.9) 8.2 (2.2)
MT reaching (s) 0.99 (0.17) 0.98 (0.17) 1.19 (0.39)
MT forward transport (s) 1.2 (0.2) 1.2 (0.2) 1.9 (0.8)
MT drinking (s) 1.3 (0.3) 1.4 (0.4) 1.7 (0.6)
MT back transport (s) 1.5 (0.2) 1.6 (0.3) 2.3 (1.0)
MT returning (s) 1.1 (0.2) 1.1 (0.2) 1.2 (0.2)
Number of movement units total (NMU) 5.7 (0.9) 6.2 (0.7) 10.8 (4.5)
NMU phase 1&2 2.2 (0.3) 2.3 (0.3) 4.7 (2.5)
NMU phase 4&5 3.5 (0.7) 4.0 (0.6) 6.1 (2.3)
Peak velocity (mm/s) 651 (116) 632 (91) 560 (85)
Time to peak velocity (%) 41 (6) 42 (8) 42 (5)
Peak elbow angular velocity (°/s) 99 (23) 105 (22) 68 (26)
Angular and displacement kinematics (arm and trunk)
Shoulder abduction reaching (°) 24.2 (6.5) 22.0 (6.2) 26.3 (7.0)
Shoulder abduction drinking (°) 32.1 (10.6) 28.6 (9.7) 37.7 (14.7)
Shoulder flexion reaching (°) 43.4 (6.0) 43.2 (5.8) 41.7 (8.6)
Shoulder flexion drinking (°) 49.8 (6.5) 49.9 (5.8) 52.3 (9.0)
Elbow extension reaching (°) 55 (7) 54 (8) 63 (14)
Elbow flexion drinking (°) 135 (5) 135 (5) 132 (5)
Wrist angle (°) 28 (6) 30 (6) 30 (5)
Inter-joint coordination, r − 0.96 (0.05) − 0.97 (0.04) − 0.73 (0.62)
Trunk displacement (mm) 33 (15) 35 (17) 70 (58)
  1. MT movement time, NMU number of movement units