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Table 1 Previous studies on intermuscular coordination of the upper limb after a stroke

From: Alterations in intermuscular coordination underlying isokinetic exercise after a stroke and their implications on neurorehabilitation

Task constraints Study Design
Free (unconstrained)
movement
Cheung et al. (2012) [10] Chronic stroke
Seven virtual reality tasks or ballistic movements toward 12 targets in the 3-D space
Affected limb (N = 31; FMA-UE: 0 ~ 66/66) vs. Unaffected limb
Garcia-Cossio et al. (2014) [11] Chronic stroke
Six arm and hand movements
Affected limb (N = 33; FMA-Hand: 0 ~ 11/24; Ashworth: 0 ~ 29/56) vs. Unaffected limb
Assisted
(constrained)
movement
Tropea et al. (2013) [12] Subacute stroke
Horizontal movement toward eight targets assisted by a therapeutic robot
Stroke survivor (N = 6; FMA-UE: 8 ~ 36/66) vs. The neurologically intact (N = 10)
Scano et al. (2018) [13] Chronic stroke
Hand-to-mouth movement in 3-D space assisted by a therapeutic robot
Affected limb without assist (N = 22; FMA-UE: 12 ~ 64/66) vs. Affected limb with assist
Runnalls et al. (2019) [14] Chronic stroke
Reaching toward 14 targets in 3-D space with varying level of weight support
Stroke survivor (mild impairment; N = 7; FMA-UE: 56 ~ 66/66) vs. Stroke survivor (moderate-severe impairment; N = 6; FMA-UE: 9 ~ 45/66) vs. The neurologically intact (N = 6)
Static (isometric)
strengthening
Roh et al. (2013, 2015) [15, 16] Chronic stroke
End-point force generation along 54 directions in the 3-D space at fixed posture (by holding the stationary force sensing handle)
Stroke survivor (mild impairment; N = 8; FMA-UE: 50 ~ 66/66) vs. Stroke survivor (moderate impairment; N = 8; FMA-UE: 29 ~ 45/66) vs. Stroke survivor (severe impairment; N = 8; FMA-UE: 12 ~ 23/66) vs. The neurologically intact (N = 8)