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Table 1 Clinical and demographic characteristics of study participants

From: Transcranial electrostimulation with special waveforms enhances upper-limb motor function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Sham NIBS (N = 12) Real NIBS (N = 12) Total (N = 24) p value
Age (years)
 Mean ± SD 65.92 ± 13.98 62.08 ± 15.58 64.00 ± 14.61 0.53
 Median 67.5 65.5 66.5  
Sex (M/F) 7/5 9/3 17/7 0.67
Stroke etiology (ischemic/hemorrhagic) 8/4 8/4 16/8 1.00
Affected hemisphere (right/left) 7/5 7/5 14/10 1.00
Time since stroke (month)   8 7  
 Mean ± SD 18.00 ± 17.42 20.25 ± 14.74 19.13 ± 15.82 0.34
 Median 9.5 14 11  
FMA-UE baseline     
 Mean ± SD 45.17 ± 17.18 37.50 ± 20.54 41.33 ± 18.93 0.37
 Median 51 39 43.50  
JTT (total time, s) baseline     
 Mean ± SD 179.54 ± 90.79 209.71 ± 100.27 194.62 ± 94.81 0.62
 Median 135.76 195.67 144.30  
FNT baseline     
 Mean ± SD 29.25 ± 15.86 20.46 ± 16.55 24.85 ± 16.47 0.20
 Median 32.75 23.00 27.25  
  1. Sham NIBS sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) + intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) with conventional rehabilitation, Real NIB tDCS + iTBS with conventional rehabilitation, SD standard deviation, M/F male/female, FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity, JTT Jebsen–Taylor test, FNT Finger-to-Nose test, p value = difference between the sham NIBS group and real NIBS group