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Table 2 Functional tests results (FMA-UE, JTT, and FNT) with significance values

From: Transcranial electrostimulation with special waveforms enhances upper-limb motor function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Sham NIBS (N = 12) Real NIBS (N = 12) p value
  Mean ± SD Median Mean ± SD Median  
FMA-UE
 Baseline 45.17 ± 17.18 51 37.50 ± 20.54 39  
 Post-treatment 52.17 ± 15.03*** 60 48.33 ± 16.55*** 51  
 Δpre-post 7.00 ± 7.35 3.5 11.33 ± 10.52 9 0.104
JTT (total time, sec)
 Baseline 179.54 ± 90.79 135.76 209.71 ± 100.27 195.67  
 Post-treatment 174.43 ± 94.07 115.64 177.94 ± 97.64** 133.49  
 Δpre-post 5.11 ± 13.26 4.06 31.76 ± 49.78 18.52 0.016
Finger to nose
 Baseline 29.25 ± 15.86 32.75 20.46 ± 16.55 23.00  
 Post-treatment 32.04 ± 17.41 35.25 33.75 ± 13.73* 34.75  
 Δpre-post 2.79 ± 5.17 0 13.29 ± 18.60 7 0.037
  1. Sham NIBS sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) + intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) with conventional rehabilitation, Real NIBS tDCS + iTBS with conventional rehabilitation, SD standard deviation, M/F male/female, FMA-UE Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity, JTT Jebsen-Taylor test,FNT Finger-to-Nose test, p value = independent sample t-test for difference between mean changes from baseline of the sham NIBS group versus the real NIBS group. *p < 0.05 or **p < 0.01 or ***p < 0.001 paired t-test of within-group differences of baseline—post-treatment