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Table 3 Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) + intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) waveform on subtests of the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT)

From: Transcranial electrostimulation with special waveforms enhances upper-limb motor function in patients with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Sham NIBS (N = 12) Real NIBS (N = 12) p value
Baseline (Mean ± SD) Post (Mean ± SD) Change in % (Mean ± SD) Baseline (Mean ± SD) Post (Mean ± SD) Change in % (Mean ± SD)
Writing 40.10 ± 9.01 38.61 ± 9.50 − 3.52 ± 9.82 41.31 ± 7.17 37.15 ± 9.14 − 9.40 ± 17.37 0.362
Turning cards 20.81 ± 15.35 19.59 ± 15.68 − 6.62 ± 12.87 28.11 ± 17.74 24.99 ± 16.53 − 8.13 ± 26.81 0.907
Picking up small objects 28.51 ± 12.31 25.96 ± 14.25 − 10.48 ± 15.73 31.34 ± 14.62 28.01 ± 15.26 − 10.27 ± 20.50 0.814
Picking up beans 29.17 ± 14.62 27.29 ± 14.38 − 3.84 ± 21.21 32.40 ± 13.13 27.33 ± 12.91 − 14.28 ± 21.00 0.238
Stacking checkers 22.37 ± 17.33 24.56 ± 18.22 18.79 ± 54.02 25.89 ± 20.04 22.51 ± 18.27 − 1.44 ± 37.14 0.254
Lifting light cans 20.21 ± 15.86 19.75 ± 15.92 − 2.10 ± 10.73 25.01 ± 17.81 18.64 ± 14.96* − 19.22 ± 25.70 0.034
Lifting heavy cans 18.73 ± 16.03 18.66 ± 16.06 0.64 ± 15.42 25.64 ± 17.54 19.32 ± 16.04* − 20.09 ± 26.02 0.027
  1. Sham NIBS sham tDCS + iTBS with conventional rehabilitation, Real NIBS tDCS + iTBS with conventional rehabilitation, SD standard deviation Change in % = (Baseline/Post × 100 – 100); p value = independent-sample t-test for difference between mean change in % from the baseline of the Sham-CR group versus tDCS + iTBS group. *p < 0.05 paired t-test for within-group differences in baseline—post treatment. Negative values indicate a reduction in time of JTT subtests and consequent performance improvement