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Table 3 Validity and feasibility results for all task metrics on the affected side

From: Reliable and valid robot-assisted assessments of hand proprioceptive, motor and sensorimotor impairments after stroke

Category Metric AUC % impaired % class. agree. Corr. FMA Corr. BBT Corr. kUDT Time T1 [min]
Sensory AE [deg] 0.95 66.67 70.00 (kUDT) -0.32 -0.37* -0.48* 3.52 ± 1.82
Motor Vel. Flex. [deg/s] 0.91 60.00 76.67 (FMA) 0.74*** 0.62*** -0.13 3.25 ± 0.55
Vel. Ext. [deg/s] 0.94 90.00 80.00 (FMA) 0.76*** 0.66*** -0.07
AROM [deg] 0.80 60.00 83.33 (FMA) 0.85*** 0.77*** 0.14 1.67 ± 0.46
PROM [deg] 0.69 23.33 47.67 (FMA) 0.58*** 0.56** 0.27
Force Flex. [N] 0.93 83.33 80.00 (FMA) 0.82*** 0.69*** 0.08 1.50 ± 0.89
Force Ext. [N] 0.80 40.00 50.00 (FMA) 0.81*** 0.73*** 0.21
Sensorimotor RMSE Slow [deg] 0.91 73.33 70.00 (kUDT) \(\mid\) 76.67 (FMA) -0.33 -0.39* -0.44* 3.80 ± 0.83
RMSE Fast [deg] 0.92 46.67 70.00 (kUDT) \(\mid\) 63.33 (FMA) -0.43* -0.45* -0.39*
  1. AE: Position Matching Absolute Error, Vel. Flex./Ext.: Maximum Velocity Flexion/Extension, AROM/PROM: Active/Passive Range of Motion, Force Flex./Ext.: Maximum Force Flexion/Extension, RMSE Slow/Fast: Tracking Error RMSE Slow/Fast, FMA: Fugl-Meyer Upper Limb Motor Assessment, kUDT: kinesthetic Up-Down Test, BBT: Box & Block Test, AUC: Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic, % impaired: % of stroke subjects classified as impaired according to z-scores, % class. agree.: % classification agreement as compared to clinical scores, Corr.: Spearman correlation of robotic metric with a clinical score. The defined threshold for discriminant validity was: AUC>0.7. Statistical significance: p-value<0.05: *, p-value<0.01: **, p-value<0.001: ***