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Table 3 Classification of exergames according to the motor learning principles

From: Comparison between the effects of exergame intervention and traditional physical training on improving balance and fall prevention in healthy older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Principles of motor learning To enhance Intervention model Intervention system
Learning occurs through repetitive, varied practice of meaningful tasks Balance (proprioception), postural control, strength, motor coordination, and cognition Balance game/exercise [22, 30, 31, 35, 40], sport game (such as football, tennis, skiing game and simulations) [28, 34, 38], the kayak program [36], selected Tai Chi movements [23], customized tasks [29] Balance-A [35], Microsoft Kinect [34, 38], AR (Microsoft Kinect) [23, 29], Nintendo Wii [28, 40], Nintendo Wii with balance board [22, 31], VR [30, 36]
Learning occurs when task difficulty is progressively increased according to the user's ability Aerobic endurance, balance, postural control, strength, motor coordination, and cognition Balance game/exercise [4, 41], dance game [37, 39], exergame [42], tailored exergame program [21], steeping game [32], selected Tai Chi movements [23], and sport game [43] Microsoft Kinect [21], AR with Microsoft Kinect [23], the interact training system [32], Nintendo Wii [41, 43], VR (X-box 360) [42], VR with dance pad/platform [4, 37, 39]
Learning occurs when the individual is motivated to improve Balance control, motor coordination, and cognition Exergame [42], stepping game [32] VR (X-box 360) [42], the interact training system [32]
Sensory feedback that is related to the task is necessary for learning Balance control Balance exercise [4] VR (BTS NIRVANA) [4]
Learning occurs when an individual receives positive feedback about task performance and task accomplishment Balance, stepping ability, and cognition Stepping game [32], Adventure game [33] The interact training system [32], VR (Microsoft Kinect) [33]
  1. VR virtual reality