Skip to main content

Table 2 Temporal and accelerometer-based measures of gait for PD patients receiving high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and low-frequency stimulation (LFS) during self-selected and comfortable walking

From: Low-frequency STN-DBS provides acute gait improvements in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blinded randomised cross-over feasibility trial

  HFS
(n = 14)
LFS
(n = 10)
Speed
(1.08 m/s)
Speed
(1.09 m/s) and ED (2.31 mm)
Speed
(1.09 m/s) and X distance
(-0.76)
Speed
(1.09 m/s) and Z distance
(-0.18)
Speed
(1.09 m/s) and Y distance (0.72)
Speed
(1.08 m/s) and TEED (92.40)
Speed
(1.08 m/s) and MDS-UPDRSIII (31.70)
Temporal measures      
Walking Speed (m/s) 1.08 (0.15) 1.08 (0.19) 0.989 0.477 0.471 0.499 0.841 0.400 0.305
Cadence (steps/minute) 126.69 (9.06) 126.66 (11.74) 0.992 0.921 0.816 0.874 0.840 0.840 0.811
Step time (seconds) 0.53 (0.04) 0.53 (0.05) 0.755 0.965 0.885 0.975 0.928 0.928 0.623
Step time variability (ms) 24.5 (14.22) 22.76 (17.26) 0.707 0.825 0.641 0.740 0.671 0.671 0.839
Harmonic ratios      
Head AP 1.83 (0.51) 2.04 (0.63) 0.259 0.530 0.523 0.556 0.543 0.308 0.125
Head ML 2.25 (0.54) 2.39 (0.69) 0.161 0.297 0.254 0.264 0.252 0.124 0.075
Head VT 2.57 (0.78) 2.96 (0.80) 0.048 0.196 0.182 0.179 0.176 0.143 0.060
Trunk AP 1.78 (0.43) 2.06 (0.44) 0.160 0.189 0.189 0.180 0.184 0.093 0.040
Trunk ML 1.81 (0.50) 2.23 (0.61) 0.004 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.011 0.010 0.002
Trunk VT 2.9 (1.01) 3.34 (1.11) 0.044 0.093 0.068 0.094 0.075 0.080 0.044
Movement amplitude (m/s2)      
Head AP 1.18 (0.53) 1.20 (0.41) 0.363 0.139 0.135 0.148 0.138 0.336 0.330
Head ML 1.07 (0.23) 1.02 (0.20) 0.782 0.689 0.675 0.683 0.727 0.660 0.522
Head VT 2.07 (0.32) 2.09 (0.46) 0.034 0.116 0.134 0.122 0.126 0.083 0.146
Trunk AP 0.91 (0.16) 0.92 (0.21) 0.589 0.757 0.804 0.806 0.812 0.566 0.384
Trunk ML 1.23 (0.35) 1.18 (0.29) 0.131 0.668 0.673 0.675 0.676 0.173 0.255
Trunk VT 2.28 (0.31) 2.33 (0.47) 0.003 0.026 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.004 0.018
  1. Data represent the mean (± 1 standard deviation) and p-values derived from the linear mixed model (LMM) analyses. LMM analyses were performed with walking speed and each of the following entered separately as covariates; the Euclidean distance; X distance; Y distance; Z distance; the total electrical energy delivered (TEED), and the MDS-UPDRS III. The values presented in brackets under each of these column headers represent the values used for each covariate within the statistical models
  2. ns  no significant differences, AP  anterior-posterior, ED  Euclidean distance, HFS  high-frequency stimulation, LFS  low-frequency stimulation, ms  milliseconds, ML  medial-lateral, m/s  metres per second, VT  vertical