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Table 2 Results from clinical scores and “lean-and-release” assessment including the COM velocity

From: Kinect-based rapid movement training to improve balance recovery for stroke fall prevention: a randomized controlled trial

Outcome measures Rapid Movement Training Group (RMT) Conventional Balance Training Group (CBT) P
  Pre Post P Pre Post P Time Group x Time
Primary outcome measures
 BBS 49.13 (1.63) 52.75 (2.46) 0.001** 48.64 (2.56) 52.00 (2.96) 0.005**  < 0.001*** 0.886
 TUG (s) 14.66 (3.42) 12.62 (2.54) 0.011* 18.16 (7.57) 17.65 (5.79) 0.950 0.070 0.085
Secondary outcome measures
 FMA 60.63 (18.20) 65.19 (17.14) 0.015* 58.64 (16.43) 60.43 (17.34) 0.257 0.010** 0.790
 ABC (%) 74.22 (11.41) 74.59 (19.07) 0.943 67.53 (20.00) 70.62 (17.84) 0.300 0.147 0.697
 BI 19.63 (0.50) 19.69 (0.60) 0.669 19.29 (1.33) 19.21 (1.85) 0.856 1.000 0.637
 Step displacement (% of height) 28.33 (9.69) 29.66 (9.08) 0.166 30.55 (8.94) 28.92 (9.11) 0.039* 0.798 0.018*
 Step length (% of height) 28.19 (9.64) 29.48 (9.01) 0.176 30.40 (8.95) 28.78 (9.10) 0.043* 0.778 0.020*
 Step width (% of height) 2.20 (1.96) 2.72 (2.10) 0.295 2.17 (1.87) 2.44 (1.47) 0.349 0.181 0.666
 Movement onset time (s) 229.60 (74.25) 218.83 (65.26) 0.108 228.67 (91.71) 221.85 (68.80) 0.440 0.103 0.707
 Movement completion time (s) 496.62 (137.63) 494.98 (130.88) 0.800 493.38 (149.14) 481.11 (135.84) 0.346 0.312 0.437
 Number of steps 2.37 (1.25) 2.39 (1.34) 0.904 2.83 (1.47) 2.85 (1.44) 0.967 0.925 0.988
 \({\text{v}}_{\text{COM}}\) at MOT (mm/s) 180.73 (108.57) 201.56 (107.32) 0.289 190.72 (98.50) 177.81 (90.70) 0.335 0.740 0.164
 \({\mathrm{v}}_{\mathrm{COM}}\) at MCT (mm/s) 763.89 (240.19) 773.80 (229.10) 0.750 760.23 (224.19) 783.86 (230.40) 0.394 0.422 0.741
  1. BBS Berg Balance Scale, FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment, TUG Timed-Up-and-Go, ABC Activities Balance Confidence Scale, BI Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living, MOT movement onset time, MCT movement completion time, \({\mathrm{v}}_{\mathrm{COM}}\), velocity of center of mass
  2. Clinical scores such as BBS, TUG, FMA, ABC and BI (RMT n = 16, CBT n = 14) were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U test (Group × Time) and Wilcoxon Singed Rank Test (Time). “Lean-and-release” assessment results such as spatiotemporal data (RMT n = 15, CBT n = 13) were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA
  3. The bold indicate statistically significant results. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001