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Table 4 Statistical results for single directions

From: Efficacy of wrist robot-aided orthopedic rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial

  RF RD E UF F P S UE RE UD
Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values Statistic p-values
Passive ROM
 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs tests (experimental vs control)
  Tb 59 0.974 57 0.948 63 0.927 37 0.353 45 0.851 51 0.809 29 0.131 37 0.353 50 0.601 31 0.099
  Te 26 0.049 34 0.169 24 0.021 15 0.024 35 0.280 32 0.042 34 0.152 11 0.004* 31 0.111 18 0.004*
 Mann–Whitney U (Tb vs Te)
  Experimental 0 0.004* 0 0.008 0 0.004* 3 0.020 2 0.023 11 0.105 6 0.055 5 0.020 1 0.016 13 0.160
  Control 14 0.102 12 0.034 29 0.273 9 0.469 11 0.203 32 0.966 9 0.129 1 0.063 17 0.092 16 0.275
Active ROM
 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs tests (experimental vs control)
  Tb 56 0.605 54 0.973 43 0.905 43 0.186 58 0.693 45 0.512 37 0.353 55 0.563 64 0.976 50 0.376
  Te 20 0.009 34 0.110 48 0.512 40 0.699 65 1 40 0.503 36 0.384 18 0.030 11 0.002* 21 0.005*
 Mann–Whitney U (Tb vs Te)
  Experimental 4 0.027 8 0.098 4 0.055 9 0.469 4 0.014 2 0.012 4 0.055 3 0.078 2 0.023 0 0.002*
  Control 22 0.11 31 0.898 3 0.010 8 0.006 4 0.002* 10 0.084 13 0.160 18 0.057 22 0.110 12 0.017
Isometric Force
 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs tests (experimental vs control)
  Tb 39 0.114 34 0.057 39 0.115 41 0.262 42 0.166 64 0.976 56 0.605 39 0.209 35 0.067 52 0.695
  Te 27 0.018 23 0.017 45 0.232 56 0.605 45 0.393 51 0.410 48 0.313 34 0.057 59 0.738 34 0.057
 Mann–Whitney U (Tb vs Te)
  Experimental 3 0.010 3 0.020 8 0.049 0 0.004* 7 0.074 7 0.037 13 0.160 3 0.020 12 0.131 6 0.055
  Control 14 0.027 12 0.017 5 0.002* 8 0.006 6 0.003* 30 0.305 20 0.080 13 0.021 3 0.001* 26 0.191
Matching Error
 Wilcoxon Matched Pairs tests (experimental vs control)
  Tb 41 0.148 43 0.324 38 0.277 29 0.026 40 0.235 62 0.879 58 0.693 56 0.605 43 0.324 57 0.648
  Te 59 0.738 40 0.345 49 0.343 48 0.456 46 0.557 51 0.809 37 0.247 40 0.131 55 0.563 60 0.784
 Mann–Whitney U (Tb vs Te)
  Experimental 22 0.625 16 0.496 28 0.57 12 0.131 15 0.426 32 0.301 19 0.432 21 0.91 27 0.652 23 0.695
  Control 71 0.080 49 0.470 46 0.622 66 0.168 38 0.635 41 0.910 48 0.893 55 0.054 59 0.376 44 0.946
  1. Results of Mann–Whitney U Tests to detect the presence of group differences (“Experimental vs Control”) and of Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests to inspect changes inside each group (“Tb vs Te”). Cells present p-values related to each specific direction of movement, tested in each exercise. p-values in bold are significant at p < 0.05. Asterisks (*) show which results are still significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (p-values significant at p < 0.005)