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Table 2 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects with stroke

From: Transcranial direct current stimulation combined with robotic therapy for upper and lower limb function after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials

Author
(year)
Participants (n)
[enrolled]
Gender
M/F
Age
Mean (SD)
Classification Type
I/H
Pathology characteristics Duration
Mean (SD)
       Affected side Right/left Location of lesion
C/SC
Geroin C. et al. (2011)29 n = 30
tDCS (n = 10)
Sham (n = 10)
Control (n = 10)
tDCS: 8/2
Sham: 6/4
Control: 9/1
tDCS: 63.6 (6.7)
Sham: 63.3 (6.4)
Control: 61.1 (6.3)
Chronic tDCS: 4/3
Sham: 5/2
Control: 3/4
tDCS:25.7 (6.0)
Sham: 26.7 (5.1)
Control: 26.9 (5.8)
months
Hesse S. et al. (2011)2830 n = 96
Anodal tDCS (n = 32) Cathodal tDCS (n = 32)
Sham (n = 32)
Anodal tDCS: 20/12
Cathodal tDCS: 18/14
Sham: 21/11
Anodal tDCS: 63.9 (19.5)
Cathodal tDCS: 65.4 (8.6)
Sham: 65.6 (10.3)
Subacute Anodal tDCS: 32/0
Cathodal tDCS: 32/0
Sham: 32/0
Anodal tDCS: 14/18
Cathodal tDCS: 15/17
Sham: 16/16
Anodal tDCS: 25/7
Cathodal tDCS: 24/8
Sham: 26/6
Anodal tDCS: 3.4 ± 1.8
Cathodal tDCS: 3.8 ± 1.4
Sham: 3.8 ± 1.5
weeks
Danz M. et al. (2013)2931 n = 8
tDCS (n = 4)
Sham (n = 4)
tDCS: 3/1
Sham: 1/3
tDCS: 64.75 (14.86)
Sham: 70.75 (11.14)
Chronic
 > 12 months
tDCS: 2/2
Sham: 4/0
tDCS: 0/4
Sham: 0/4
tDCS: 4.78 (4.6)
Sham: 3.22 (2.73)
years
Triccas T. et al. (2015)3032 n = 23
tDCS (n = 12)
Sham (n = 11)
tDCS: 7/5
Sham: 7/4
tDCS: 62.5 (14.3)
Sham: 64.3 (9.94)
Subacute and chronic
 > 2 months
tDCS: 9/3
Sham: 9/2
tDCS: 11/2
Sham: 11/0
tDCS: 3/8
Sham:4/6
19.6 (25.7)
months
Straudi. S et al
(2016)3133
n = 23
tDCS (n = 12)
Sham (n = 11)
tDCS: 5/7
Sham: 7/4
tDCS: 52.7 (16.0)
Sham: 64.3 (9.7)
Subacute and chronic tDCS: 10/2
Sham: 9/2
tDCS: 3/9
Sham: 5/6
tDCS: 9/3
Sham: 5/6
tDSC: 40.7 (35.1)
Sham: 78.2 (61.9)
weeks
Seo HG et al
(2017)3234
n = 21
tDCS (n = 11)
Sham (n = 10)
Sham: 7/3
tDCS: 9/2
Sham: 62.9 ± 8.9
tDCS: 61.1 ± 8.9
Chronic Sham: 7/3
tDCS: 9/2
Sham: 8/2
tDCS: 5/6
Sham: 152.5 ± 122.8
tDCS: 75.5 ± 83.4
months
Mazzoleni S et al
(2017)3335
n = 24
tDCS (n = 12)
Sham (n = 12)
Sham: 6/6
tDCS: 1/11
Sham: 75.25 ± 8.01
tDCS: 70.00 ± 12.80
Subacute Sham: 11/1
tDCS: 7/5
Sham: 6/6
tDCS: 6/6
Sham: 24.17 ± 14.02 tDCS:26.58 ± 11.86
days
Dehem et al
(2018)3436
n = 21
Crossover
15/6 Total: 60.5 (9.5) Chronic Total: 15/6 Total: 11/10 14/7 Total: 38.6 (57.0)
months
Edwards et al
(2019)3537
n = 82
Robot + tDCS (n = 41)
Robot + sham (n = 41)
50/32 67.8 Chronic Ischaemic Right (82) 1317 days
3.6 years
Mazzoleni et al
(2019)3638
n = 40
tDCS (n = 20)
Sham (n = 20)
Sham: 7/12
tDCS: 8/12
Sham: 68.74 ± 15.83
tDCS: 67.50 ± 16.30
Subacute Stroke Sham: 16/3
tDCS: 13/7
Sham: 11/8
tDCS: 11/9
25 ± 7 days
  1. Male (M); Female (F); Standard Deviation (SD); Ischaemic (I); Haemorrhagic (H); Cortical (C); Subcortical (SC); Group (G); Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)