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Table 2 Mean ± Standard deviation for the scale and drawing error measures, averaged by orientation, task, shape and group

From: Proximal and distal movement patterns during a graphomotor task in typically developing children and children with handwriting problems

Group Horizontal Vertical
Copy Trace Copy Trace
\(\circ\) \(\square\) \(\triangle\) \(\circ\) \(\square\) \(\triangle\) \(\circ\) \(\square\) \(\triangle\) \(\circ\) \(\square\) \(\triangle\)
Scale
 Control 0.808 ± 0.166 0.807 ± 0.166 0.798 ± 0.147 0.991 ± 0.012 0.992 ± 0.008 0.976 ± 0.012 0.810 ± 0.154 0.796 ± 0.164 0.778 ± 0.139 0.988 ± 0.013 0.992 ± 0.005 0.975 ± 0.008
 Research 0.780 ± 0.160 0.813 ± 0.120 0.795 ± 0.156 0.981 ± 0.011 0.988 ± 0.019 0.967 ± 0.053 0.776 ± 0.130 0.814 ± 0.161 0.800 ± 0.154 0.982 ± 0.012 0.991 ± 0.011 0.972 ± 0.024
Drawing error (%)
 Control 2.835 ± 1.478 3.450 ± 1.511 3.278 ± 1.483 0.801 ± 0.295 0.974 ± 0.504 0.790 ± 0.192 3.347 ± 1.355 4.471 ± 2.427 3.448 ± 1.503 0.780 ± 0.273 0.897 ± 0.357 0.836 ± 0.282
 Research 3.718 ± 1.283 4.147 ± 1.422 3.847 ± 1.282 1.264 ± 0.833 1.238 ± 0.562 1.281 ± 0.621 3.861 ± 1.496 5.016 ± 2.448 4.245 ± 1.955 1.306 ± 0.712 1.258 ± 0.682 1.063 ± 0.385