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Table 5 Results of mixed-design ANOVA on magnitude and dissimilarity, in comparing the drawing on the tablet with the joint movements

From: Proximal and distal movement patterns during a graphomotor task in typically developing children and children with handwriting problems

Factor F p Comparison (when significant)
Magnitude
Orientation F(1,30) = 6.175 0.019 Vertical (0.410 ± 0.111) < Horizontal (0.499 ± 0.197)
Joint F(4,120) = 97.020 <0.001 Fingers (0.996 ± 0.370) > Wrist (0.596 ± 0.230) >Elbow (0.396 ± 0.200) > [Shoulder (0.170 ± 0.119), Upper back (0.121 ± 0.097)]
Task F(1,30) = 5.846 0.022 Copying (0.416 ± 0.183) < Tracing (0.492 ± 0.168)
Shape F(2,60) = 1.561 0.218  
Group F(1,30) = 0.009 0.927  
Orientation * Group F(1,30) = 0.097 0.757  
Joint * Group F(4,120) = 0.622 0.648  
Task * Group F(1,30) = 0.684 0.415  
Shape * Group F(2,60) = 0.421 0.658  
Orientation * Joint F(4,120) = 2.107 0.084  
Orientation * Task F(1,30) = 0.211 0.650  
Orientation * Shape F(2,60) = 1.674 0.196  
Joint * Task F(4,120) = 3.192 0.016 Only Fingers [Copying (0.946 ± 0.635) < Tracing (1.039 ± 0.281)] and Wrist [Copying (0.487 ± 0.203) < Tracing (0.700 ± 0.340)] different. Others not different: Elbow [Copying (0.357 ± 0.225), Tracing (0.428 ± 0.241)],
Shoulder [Copying (0.169 ± 0.136±), Tracing (0.171 ± 0.134±)]
Upper back [Copying (0.122 ± 0.113), Tracing (0.122 ± 0.110)]
Joint * Shape F(8,240) = 1.955 0.053  
Task * Shape F(1,30) = 2.741 0.073  
Dissimilarity
Orientation F(1,30) = 2.990 0.094  
Joint F(4,120) = 64.772 <0.001 [Fingers (7.5 ± 1.6), Wrist (11.0 ± 3.5)] <Elbow (15.3 ± 4.7) <
[Shoulder (25.7 ± 10.4), Upper back (29.4 ± 14.8)]
Task F(1,30) = 2.734 0.109  
Shape F(2,60) = 6.686 0.002 Circle (19.1 ± 6.5) > [Square (16.9 ± 7.8), Triangle (17.2 ± 6.1)]
Group F(1,30) = 8.091 0.008 Control (26.4 ± 4.7) < Research (33.9 ± 11.2)
Orientation * Group F(1,30) = 0.033 0.858  
Joint * Group F(4,120) = 4.632 0.002 No difference for Fingers [Control (7.1 ± 1.3), Research (7.9 ± 1.8)],
Wrist [Control (10.5 ± 3.0), Research (11.6 ± 4.0)],
Elbow [Control (14.9 ± 4.5), Research (16.2 ± 4.8)].
Shoulder [Control (21.4 ± 5.6) < Research (31.5 ± 11.7)]
Upper back [Control (25.2 ± 9.6) < Research (34.5 ± 18.1)]
Task * Group F(1,30) = 5.218 0.030 Trace: no difference
[Control (15.7 ± 3.6), Research (19.2 ± 7.1)]
Copy:
[control (16.0 ± 3.6) < Research (21.3 ± 7.9)]
Shape * Group F(2,60) = 0.186 0.831  
Orientation * Joint F(4,120) = 3.444 0.011 Upper back: Horizontal (24.4 ± 14.6) < Vertical (34.3 ± 21.0)
Other joints: no difference:
shoulder: [Horizontal (23.6 ± 12.3), Vertical (28.1 ± 14.4)]
elbow: [Horizontal (15.4 ± 5.9), Vertical (15.2 ± 5.2)]
wrist: [Horizontal (10.6 ± 4.2), Vertical (11.3 ± 4.4)]
fingers: [Horizontal (7.6 ± 2.0), Vertical (7.5 ± 2.2)]
Orientation * Task F(1,30) = 0.010 0.920  
Orientation * Shape F(2,60) = 0.845 0.435  
Joint * Task F(4,120) = 0.884 0.476  
Joint * Shape F(8,240) = 0.818 0.517  
Task * Shape F(1,30) = 11.581 <0.001 Triangle: copy (21.0 ± 10.9) < trace (13.6 ± 3.5)
Other shapes: no difference:
circle: [copy (17.2 ± 8.2), trace (20.8 ± 8.0)]
square: [copy (16.8 ± 5.9), trace (17.3 ± 11.6)]
  1. Three-way interactions (all non-significant except for joint * shape * task for both tasks, and orientation * joint * task for relative ellipse area) and four-way interactions (all non-significant) are not shown