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Table 3 Linear mixed model results on kinematics for the factor movement task across subjects

From: Characterization of stroke-related upper limb motor impairments across various upper limb activities by use of kinematic core set measures

  All movements Gesture movements Grasp movements Significance
Trunk displacement in cm 5.2 (4.3–7.3) 2.9 (2.2–3.6) 7.1 (6.1–8.2) p < 0.001*
Shoulder flex/ext in degrees 52.1 (45.0–60.2) 76.1 (70.3–81.8) 66.5 (62.4–70.6) p < 0.001*
Shoulder abd/add in degrees 17.9 (15.7–24.0) 26.7 (24.3–29.3) 29.3 (27.5–31.0) p = 0.035*
Elbow flex/ext in degrees 55.7 (46.3–63.8) 71.3 (65.3–77.4) 92.33 (89.0–95.6) p < 0.001*
Forearm pro/sup 
in degrees
42.5 (31.5–54.8) 54.1 (49.1–59.1) 65.5 (58.2–66.9) p = 0.008*
Wrist flex/ext
in degrees
33.3 (23.6–41.7) 21.1 (19.2–23.0) 33.2 (30.0–36.3) p < 0.001*
Movement time in seconds 6.7 (5.5–8.4) 3.43 (3.17–3.69) 7.05 (6.46–7.64) p < 0.001*
Peak velocity in m/s 0.8 (0.8–1.0) 1.99 (1.81–2.18) 1.22 (1.13–1.31) p < 0.001*
NVP 63.2 (49.6–77.2) 21.0 (17.8–24.2) 58.0 (49.4–66.5) p < 0.001*
SPARC − 4.2 (− 4.9 to (− 3.8)) − 3.3 (− 3.5 to (− 3.1)) − 3.6 (− 3.8 to (− 3.4)) p = 0.023*
  1. Abd/Add abduction/adduction, Flex/Ext flexion/extension, NVP number of velocity peaks, Pro/Sup pronation/supination, SPARC spectral arc length
  2. Kinematic parameters are represented by mean and (95% confidence interval) for the totally collected data and for the gesture and grasp activities separately
  3. *Indicates statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between gesture and grasp kinematics