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Box 1 Key findings on upper limb kinematic characteristics

From: Characterization of stroke-related upper limb motor impairments across various upper limb activities by use of kinematic core set measures

Comparison of gesture and grasping movements
•All spatiotemporal parameters differed significantly
•Gestures are characterized by larger and faster motions in the shoulder joint
•Grasp movements included larger trunk motions and joint ranges in forearm Pro/Sup and wrist Flex/Ext
Comparison of subjects with no, mild and moderate stroke-related impairments
•Trunk displacement increased, shoulder Flex/Ext and Abd/Add decreased, movement time and the NVP increased with impairment
•Interactions between task and impairment found for shoulder Abd/Add, movement time, NVP
Comparison and relations during reaching distally and proximally
•Reaching distally was comparable in shoulder Flex/Ext, shoulder Abd/Add, movement time, hand peak velocity, the NVP and SPARC
•Reaching proximally was comparable in trunk displacement, elbow Flex/Ext, forearm Pro/Sup, movement time, hand peak velocity, NVP and SPARC
•Strong relations found across tasks between shoulder Flex/Ext, elbow Flex/Ext, hand peak velocity and between NVP and SPARC during reaching distally and proximally
•Trends towards more strong and consistent associations between metrics with impairment might be attributable to less task-specific and selective motor abilities in subjects after stroke
  1. Abd/Add abduction/adduction, Flex/Ext flexion/extension, NVP number of velocity peaks, Pro/Sup pronation/supination, SPARC spectral arc length