Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients at baseline

From: Effects of Balance Exercise Assist Robot training for patients with hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics BEAR group IBT group CR group P-value
(n = 18) (n = 19) (n = 20)
Sex, male/female, n 9/9 16/3 12/8 0.012
Age, years, mean (SD) 61.6 (10.1) 63.1 (10.1) 69.7 (8.7) 0.028
Height, cm, mean (SD) 162.4 (8.7) 165.9 (8.3) 161.6 (11.6) 0.320
Weight, kg, mean (SD) 61.3 (10.7) 62.8 (12.8) 60.1 (13.6) 0.794
Stroke type, hemorrhage/infarction, n 7/11 12/7 11/9 0.303
Affected side, right/left, n 13/5 6/13 9/11 0.052
Days from stroke onset, mean (SD) 55.8 (18.9) 58.2 (20.1) 52.2 (18.3) 0.615
Mini-BESTest, median (IQR) 9.5 (12.0) 14.0 (13.0) 15.0 (10.5) 0.883
SIAS lower limb motor score, median (IQR) 11.0 (3.0) 10.0 (3.0) 12.0 (3.0) 0.147
Maximum center of pressure movement, cm, mean (SD)     
  Left–right 31.2 (7.8) 32.0 (7.1) 33.3 (6.2) 0.659
  Anterior-to-posterior 12.9 (2.9) 12.6 (2.3) 13.3 (3.7) 0.775
Lower limb extension torque, Nm/kg, mean (SD)     
  Affected 0.7 (0.3) 0.7 (0.5) 0.8 (0.5) 0.998
  Non-affected 1.2 (0.4) 1.1 (0.5) 1.1 (0.4) 0.760
Lower limb muscle strength, N, mean (SD)     
Hip flexion Affected 110.3 (76.1) 96.4 (88.5) 99.3 (66.8) 0.848
  Non-affected 162.2 (81.6) 154.6 (77.5) 137.0 (54.6) 0.541
Hip abduction Affected 118.7 (59.4) 100.0 (59.4) 101.3 (60.1) 0.572
  Non-affected 138.6 (56.9) 141.8 (52.5) 134.3 (57.2) 0.916
Knee extension Affected 135.7 (99.0) 117.9 (69.5) 144.4 (98.2) 0.647
  Non-affected 228.3 (112.0) 181.0 (82.2) 215.0 (95.3) 0.314
Knee flexion Affected 71.9 (43.0) 72.8 (55.4) 78.7 (61.5) 0.914
  Non-affected 130.0 (40.2) 130.4 (45.2) 115.3 (53.4) 0.531
Ankle plantarflexion Affected 116.9 (85.0) 80.7 (63.5) 99.6 (82.0) 0.370
  Non-affected 176.9 (85.4) 161.0 (95.9) 141.7 (82.3) 0.470
Ankle dorsiflexion Affected 63.3 (44.6) 68.4 (63.3) 61.8 (45.5) 0.917
  Non-affected 98.2 (38.2) 109.6 (52.8) 90.3 (36.1) 0.380
Timed up and go test, sec, mean (SD) 18.0 (13.0) 19.5 (14.6) 17.4 (15.0) 0.895
Functional Ambulation Category, median (IQR) 3 (2.0) 3 (2.0) 4 (1.0) 0.642
Falls Efficacy Scale-International, median (IQR) 26.0 (17.0) 26.0 (20.0) 22.0 (11.0) 0.250
FIM, motor score, median (IQR) 67.0 (24.0) 68.0 (21.0) 74.0 (14.5) 0.415
FIM, cognition score, median (IQR) 31.5 (8.0) 32.0 (9.0) 28.5 (10.5) 0.926
FIM, total score, median (IQR) 98.5 (29.0) 97.0 (25.0) 104.0 (19.0) 0.548
  1. BEAR Balance Exercise Assist Robot; CR conventional rehabilitation; FIM Functional Independence Measure; IBT intensive balance training; IQR interquartile range; Mini-BESTest Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test; SD standard deviation; sec seconds; SIAS Stroke Impairment Assessment Set