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Table 3 Changes in muscle strength among the groups

From: Effects of Balance Exercise Assist Robot training for patients with hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

   Change from baseline Post-intervention (Week 2) Follow-up (Week 4)
Post-intervention Follow-up Group effect Group effect
(Week 2) (Week 4) F-value P-value F-value P-value
Affected side        
 Lower limb extension torque, Nm/kg, mean (SD) BEAR 0.2 (0.2) 0.2 (0.1) 0.13 0.878 0.14 0.873
IBT 0.2 (0.6) 0.1 (0.2)
CR 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2)
 Hip flexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 19.7 (35.6) 3.3 (33.9) 2.36 0.105 0.17 0.840
IBT  − 6.2 (71.9) 19.2 (25.1)
CR 0.9 (30.1)  − 3.3 (44.6)
 Hip abduction, N, mean (SD) BEAR 13.6 (35.1) 4.9 (36.8) 0.82 0.444 0.04 0.964
IBT 2.8 (37.3) 8.1 (31.3)
CR  − 0.7 (24.5) 3.7 (24.3)
 Knee extension, N, mean (SD) BEAR 21.0 (52.4) 24.0 (45.0) 2.29 0.112 0.29 0.751
IBT 14.4 (44.9) 13.6 (41.0)
CR  − 24.4 (55.3) 9.6 (63.3)
 Knee flexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 26.0 (56.9) 6.1 (35.1) 0.86 0.429 0.80 0.457
IBT 5.9 (40.0) 2.1 (18.2)
CR 4.7 (17.4) 5.8 (20.8)
 Ankle plantarflexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 6.6 (63.0)  − 6.7 (54.1) 0.00 0.999 2.21 0.122
IBT 26.5 (43.6) 47.1 (67.9)
CR 6.8 (78.8) 6.2 (58.8)
 Ankle dorsiflexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 6.5 (33.0) 11.8 (38.6) 0.42 0.661 0.41 0.666
IBT 9.1 (27.4) 10.1 (13.2)
CR  − 1.0 (27.6) 3.7 (25.0)
Non-affected side        
 Lower limb extension torque, Nm/kg, mean (SD) BEAR 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.65 0.529 1.14 0.328
IBT 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2)
CR 0.1 (0.1) 0.3 (0.6)
 Hip flexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR  − 3.3 (74.6)  − 23.8 (72.7) 0.46 0.635 1.25 0.297
IBT  − 5.1 (68.5) 1.6 (27.7)
CR  − 12.6 (33.3)  − 2.1 (40.4)
 Hip abduction, N, mean (SD) BEAR 22.4 (42.1)  − 3.2 (41.2) 1.23 0.300 0.51 0.604
IBT 12.9 (41.1) 6.4 (38.5)
CR  − 6.8 (37.8)  − 1.7 (28.6)
 Knee extension, N, mean (SD) BEAR  − 7.3 (73.3) 2.7 (64.3) 2.94 0.062 0.07 0.928
IBT 21.4 (62.9) 9.7 (67.1)
CR  − 42.3 (59.8)  − 2.3 (47.7)
 Knee flexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 11.5 (32.2) 10.3 (32.6) 2.02 0.143 0.85 0.434
IBT  − 6.8 (37.0) 10.3 (37.2)
CR  − 9.2 (24.4) 10.3 (25.0)
 Ankle plantarflexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR  − 3.5 (75.3)  − 8.4 (64.5) 0.79 0.458 1.01 0.371
IBT 36.0 (59.8) 21.6 (82.5)
CR 3.8 (70.5) 20.1 (58.3)
 Ankle dorsiflexion, N, mean (SD) BEAR 13.7 (35.3) 2.9 (28.6) 0.84 0.439 0.95 0.393
IBT 1.0 (40.2) 16.6 (29.6)
CR  − 5.0 (35.0)  − 3.0 (32.9)
  1. BEAR Balance Exercise Assist Robot; CR conventional rehabilitation; IBT intensive balance training; SD standard deviation
  2. Significant within-group difference from the baseline and from 2 weeks