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Table 4 Changes in other secondary outcomes among the groups

From: Effects of Balance Exercise Assist Robot training for patients with hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

   Change from baseline Post-intervention (Week 2) Follow-up (Week 4)
Post-intervention Follow-up Group effect Post-hoc test * Group effect
(Week 2) (Week 4) F-value P-value vs. IBT vs CR F-value P-value
SIAS lower limb motor score, mean (SD) BEAR 0.9 (1.4) 0.8 (1.4) 0.46 0.634    0.09 0.912
IBT 0.6 (1.9) 0.9 (2.0)   
CR 0.1 (0.9) 0.3 (1.1)   
Maximum COP movement, left–right, cm, mean (SD) BEAR 3.2 (5.7) 3.2 (5.2) 0.62 0.543    0.19 0.825
IBT 1.9 (4.7) 2.2 (4.6)   
CR 0.1 (5.7) 1.4 (6.4)   
Maximum COP movement, anterior-to-posterior, cm, mean (SD) BEAR 0.7 (2.6) 1.1 (2.6) 0.12 0.889    0.04 0.963
IBT 0.9 (2.4) 1.1 (3.0)   
CR 0.1 (3.6) 0.7 (3.5)   
Functional Ambulation Category, mean (SD) BEAR 0.7 (0.8) 0.7 (0.6) 0.47 0.629    2.20 0.123
IBT 0.5 (0.6) 0.8 (0.7)   
CR 0.4 (0.6) 0.9 (0.8)†‡   
Timed Up and Go test, sec, mean (SD) BEAR  − 4.2 (6.0)  − 4.5 (6.5) 4.07 0.023 0.216 0.022 1.84 0.171
IBT  − 2.2 (3.5)  − 2.6 (3.8)   0.999
CR  − 0.9 (2.3)  − 1.7 (3.7)   
Falls Efficacy Scale-International, mean (SD) BEAR  − 0.9 (10.2)  − 3.8 (7.1) 0.46 0.636    0.12 0.890
IBT  − 3.4 (9.5)  − 4.1 (8.5)   
CR  − 0.7 (5.2)  − 2.4 (6.2)   
FIM, motor score, mean (SD) BEAR 9.8 (8.6) 13.4 (9.3) 2.07 0.136    1.71 0.193
IBT 9.4 (7.8) 9.3 (9.2)   
CR 3.6 (3.9) 9.2 (6.7)†‡   
FIM, cognition score, mean (SD) BEAR 1.1 (2.3) 1.1 (2.1) 0.34 0.717    0.52 0.598
IBT 0.9 (2.2) 1.3 (2.9)   
CR 0.6 (1.3) 1.1 (1.9)   
FIM, total score, mean (SD) BEAR 10.9 (9.4) 14.5 (9.3) 2.37 0.104    1.82 0.174
IBT 10.3 (8.2) 15.0 (11.2)   
CR 4.2 (4.7) 10.3 (7.4)†‡   
  1. BEAR Balance Exercise Assist Robot; COP center of pressure; CR conventional rehabilitation; FIM Functional Independence Measure; IBT intensive balance training; SD standard deviation; SIAS Stroke Impairment Assessment Set
  2. Significant within-group difference from baseline and from 2 weeks. *When statistically significant between-group differences were found (P < 0.05), multiple comparisons were performed between all the groups using the Bonferroni correction method