Skip to main content

Table 3 Overview of the results

From: Visual oscillation effects on dynamic balance control in people with multiple sclerosis

Group results: magnitude squared coherence and phase
  Group Magnitude squared coherence (low frequency) Phase in radians (low frequency) Magnitude squared coherence (high frequency) Phase in radians (high frequency)
Tree Low Control 0.20 ± 0.17 0.66 ± 1.04 0.52 ± 0.21 1.37 ± 0.67
MS 0.24 ± 0.11 0.41 ± 0.85 0.40 ± 0.20 1.65 ± 0.74
Scene Low Control 0.42 ± 0.19 2.23 ± 1.66 0.87 ± 0.11 − 2.48 ± 0.46
MS 0.44 ± 0.26 0.56 ± 2.44 0.73 ± 0.29 − 1.49 ± 1.45
Scene High Control 0.58 ± 0.27 − 0.36 ± 2.96 0.86 ± 0.20 − 1.71 ± 0.59
MS 0.60 ± 0.22 0.83 ± 2.68 0.80 ± 0.23 − 1.28 ± 0.93
Combined—Tree Component Control 0.18 ± 0.19 0.12 ± 1.59 0.85 ± 0.15 1.14 ± 1.55
MS 0.18 ± 0.13 0.62 ± 0.78 0.72 ± 0.25 0.98 ± 1.48
Combined—Scene Component Control 0.58 ± 0.26 1.21 ± 2.68 0.26 ± 0.19 − 1.46 ± 0.46
MS 0.50 ± 0.21 − 0.39 ± 2.81 0.28 ± 0.23 − 1.56 ± 0.65
Significant group statistics: magnitude squared coherence and phase
Group p-Value F-Value Degrees of Freedom \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\)
Magnitude Squared Coherence of Low Frequency Pairing:
Main Effect—Coherence Stimulus Condition
< 0.001 15.36 4.20 0.75
Magnitude Squared Coherence of High Frequency Pairing:
Main Effect—Coherence Stimulus Condition
< 0.001 38.778 4.20 0.89
Phase of Coherence of High Frequency Pairing:
Main Effect—Coherence Stimulus Condition
< 0.001 131.79 4.20 0.96
Group results: stepping characteristics
Condition Group Step width (Normalized) Step width variability (Normalized) Peak to peak COM (meters) Variability peak to peak COM (meters) ML foot placement (meters)
Normal Control 0.21 ± 0.03 0.027 ± 0.007 0.054 ± 0.01 0.010 ± 0.003 0.016 ± 0.00
MS 0.27 ± 0.05 0.031 ± 0.008 0.076 ± 0.02 0.012 ± 0.003 0.019 ± 0.01
Tree Low Control 0.21 ± 0.02 0.026 ± 0.005 0.055 ± 0.01 0.011 ± 0.003 0.018 ± 0.01
MS 0.27 ± 0.04 0.039 ± 0.011 0.082 ± 0.02 0.017 ± 0.004 0.031 ± 0.01
Scene Low Control 0.22 ± 0.03 0.043 ± 0.135 0.073 ± 0.01 0.022 ± 0.007 0.049 ± 0.02
MS 0.30 ± 0.06 0.048 ± 0.017 0.093 ± 0.02 0.025 ± 0.008 0.051 ± 0.02
Scene High Control 0.23 ± 0.03 0.056 ± 0.013 0.070 ± 0.01 0.022 ± 0.004 0.054 ± 0.01
MS 0.30 ± 0.05 0.055 ± 0.018 0.092 ± 0.02 0.025 ± 0.006 0.072 ± 0.04
Combined Control 0.23 ± 0.03 0.057 ± 0.220 0.068 ± 0.01 0.018 ± 0.004 0.053 ± 0.02
MS 0.29 ± 0.05 0.057 ± 0.019 0.089 ± 0.02 0.024 ± 0.006 0.043 ± 0.02
Significant group statistics: magnitude squared coherence and phase
Group p-value F-value or *t-value Degrees of freedom \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\) or *Cohen’s d
Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.01 8.89 1.23 0.28
Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene High
< 0.01 12.64 1.23 0.36
Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Combined
< 0.05 7.05 1.23 0.24
Variance in Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 44.35 1.23 0.66
Variance in Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene High
< 0.001 94.42 1.23 0.80
Variance in Step Width:
Main Effect from Normal—Combined
< 0.001 67.54 1.23 0.75
Variance in Step Width:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
< 0.05 6.99 1.23 0.23
Variance in Step Width:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc between MS vs Controls in Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 3.66 18.14 *− 1.35
Variance in Step Width:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc in MS between Normal and Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 3.36 13 *− 0.79
Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 23.21 1.23 0.50
Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene High
< 0.001 37.58 1.23 0.62
Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Combined
< 0.001 17.26 1.23 0.43
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 59.64 1.23 0.72
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 140.16 1.23 0.86
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 78.94 1.23 0.77
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
< 0.01 10.78 1.23 0.32
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc between MS vs Controls in Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 4.22 23 *− 1.70
Variance in Peak to Peak CoM:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc in MS between Normal and Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 4.47 13 *− 1.33
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 59.12 1.23 0.72
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 49.39 1.23 0.68
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Main Effect from Normal—Scene Low
< 0.001 60.00 1.23 0.73
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
< 0.01 9.93 1.23 0.30
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc between MS vs Controls in Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 3.31 13 *− 1.22
Change in Medial Lateral Foot Placement:
Interaction Effect from Normal—Tree Low
Post Hoc in MS between Normal and Tree Low
< 0.01 *− 4.42 13 *− 1.07
  1. The top portion of the table displays the mean and standard deviation for each group and condition. The bottom portion of the table displays the significant results. \({\eta }_{p}^{2}\): partial eta squared