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Table 3 Metrics of \(BM-RMSE\), \(N-RMSE\), and \(R^{2}\) mean values of the net PF moment prediction across all participants by using the proposed sEMG-US imaging-driven HNM

From: Fused ultrasound and electromyography-driven neuromuscular model to improve plantarflexion moment prediction across walking speeds

\(BM-RMSE\) Prediction scenario (m/s)
0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
Calibration 0.50 m/s 0.119 0.154 0.221 0.276 0.333
0.75 m/s 0.151 0.121 0.171 0.221 0.284
1.00 m/s 0.216 0.162 0.127 0.176 0.275
1.25 m/s 0.254 0.182 0.159 0.148 0.214
1.50 m/s 0.271 0.226 0.215 0.214 0.155
Inter-speed 0.161 0.126 0.150 0.163 0.217
\(N-RMSE\)
Calibration 0.50 m/s 8.36 9.78 12.72 14.66 16.35
0.75 m/s 10.75 7.75 9.75 11.71 14.04
1.00 m/s 15.29 10.29 7.39 9.39 13.54
1.25 m/s 17.97 11.52 9.01 7.89 10.87
1.50 m/s 19.22 14.33 12.36 11.44 7.71
Inter-speed 11.40 8.01 8.60 8.65 10.84
\(R^{2}\)
Calibration 0.50 m/s 0.909 0.895 0.876 0.854 0.794
0.75 m/s 0.863 0.943 0.930 0.908 0.845
1.00 m/s 0.838 0.933 0.948 0.920 0.855
1.25 m/s 0.809 0.912 0.928 0.940 0.904
1.50 m/s 0.769 0.855 0.877 0.899 0.946
Inter-speed 0.881 0.933 0.943 0.935 0.899
  1. The diagonal elements with bold numbers represent the situations that the calibration speed mode is the same as the prediction speed scenario. (\(BM-RMSE\) unit: N\(\cdot\)m/kg, \(N-RMSE\) unit: %)