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Table 2 Controller performance for controlled stimulation conditions

From: Motorless cadence control of standard and low duty cycle-patterned neural stimulation intensity extends muscle-driven cycling output after paralysis

Participant Controller type Target cadence [rpm] TmaxPW [s] Ttarget [s] RMSE [rpm] RMSE %
P01 Standard 40–44 218 ± 98 2.3 ± 1.6 5.6 ± 3.6
Carousel 33  > 300*  > 300* 1.1 ± 0.4 3.4 ± 1.3
P02 Standard 32  > 150* 2.8 ± 0.7 8.6 ± 2.3
Carousel 42 125 ± 37* 117 ± 31* 1.6 ± 0.4 3.9 ± 0.9
P03 Standard 45–50 43 ± 8 2.5 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 2.7
Carousel 35–38 64 ± 11 3.7 ± 1.5 10.3 ± 4.6
P04 Standard 40 58 ± 16 61 ± 24 2.7 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 2.7
Carousel 35–38 70 ± 16* 67 ± 21 3.6 ± 2.1 10.1 ± 6.2
P05 Standard 45–52 158 ± 38* 156 ± 41* 1.8 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.8
P06 Standard 25–50 83 ± 25 68 ± 22 2.3 ± 0.9 6.6 ± 2.1
P07 Standard 28–44 79 ± 27 76 ± 33 3.5 ± 2.0 10.5 ± 6.1
  1. Lower RMSE and RMSE % indicates better tracking performance. Asterisks (*) indicate TmaxPW or Ttarget was not yet reached within the duration of one or more trials. In these instances, the maximum trial duration was used for outcome measure calculations. Dashes (–) indicate PW data unavailable