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Table 3 Work, charge accumulation, and calculated efficiency differences between controlled conditions and corresponding conventional stimulation trials

From: Motorless cadence control of standard and low duty cycle-patterned neural stimulation intensity extends muscle-driven cycling output after paralysis

Participant Controlled condition Controlled mean W [kJ] Controlled total Q [nC] Controlled η [kJ/nC] S-Max mean W [kJ] S-Max total Q [nC] S-Max η [kJ/nC] Δη (× 10–6)
P01 Standard 2.94 2.75
Carousel 4.51 1.24E6 3.64E−6 4.19 5.45E6 0.77E−6  + 2.87
P02 Standard 0.96 1.14
Carousel 3.15 4.81E5 6.55E−6 2.71 2.72E6 0.99E−6  + 5.56
P03 Standard 1.62 1.61
Carousel 1.33 1.18
P04 Standard 1.75 1.02E6 1.72E−6 1.52 1.63E6 0.93E−6  + 0.79
Carousel 1.69 3.48E5 4.86E−6 1.51 1.63E6 0.93E−6  + 3.93
P05 Standard 5.57 5.87E5 9.49E−6 5.09 8.87E5 5.74E−6  + 3.75
P06 Standard 2.67 5.17E5 5.16E−6 2.61 6.24E5 4.18E−6  + 0.98
P07 Standard 1.58 3.97E5 3.97E−6 1.49 4.96E5 3.00E−6  + 0.97
  1. Dashes (–) indicate Q and η data unavailable. Positive Δη indicate superior efficiencies of controlled conditions relative to conventional stimulation