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Table 2 PEDro Scale risk of bias ratings for the included studies

From: Examining the effectiveness of virtual, augmented, and mixed reality (VAMR) therapy for upper limb recovery and activities of daily living in stroke patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Studies Eligibility criteria 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 PEDro score
Ahmad et al. 2019 [24] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
Aşkın et al. 2018 [25] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Assis et al. 2016 [26] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 6
Bergmann et al. 2017 [27] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Brunner et al. 2017 [28] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Byl et al.2013 [29] N 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Calabrò et al. 2017 [30] Y 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
Cameirão et al. 2011 [14] Y 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 4
Chen et al. 2015 [31] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Cho et al. 2012 [32] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Choi et al. 2016 [33] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
Duff et al. 2013 [34] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
El-Kafy et al. 2021 [35] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Faria et al. 2018 [36] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Ho et al. 2019 [37] Y 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 5
Hung et al. 2019 [38] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
Ikbali Afsar et al. 2018 [39] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 6
In et al. 2012 [40] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 4
Johnson et al. 2020 [41] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
Kalron et al. 2016 [42] N 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Kim et al. 2018 [43] N 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 8
Kiper et al. 2011 [44] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Kiper et al. 2014 [45] Y 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Kottink et al. 2014 [46] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Lee et al. 2014 [47] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Lee et al. 2016 [48] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
Lee et al. 2018 [49] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Levin et al. 2012 [50] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Lin et al. 2018 [51] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
Lin et al. 2020 [52] Y 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 8
ÖGÜN et al. 2019 [53] Y 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 6
Oh et al. 2019 [54] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Park et al. 2016 [55] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Park et al. 2019 [56] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Pedreira da Fonseca, 2017 [57] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 7
Piron et al. 2010 [58] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
Prange et al. 2015 [59] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Saposnik et al. 2010 [60] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Saposnik et al. 2016 [61] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
Shin et al. 2013 [62] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 5
Shin et al. 2014 [63] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 5
Shin et al. 2015 [64] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Shin et al. 2016 [65] Y 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 7
Sin et al. 2013 [66] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Subramanian et al. 2013 [67] N 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 7
Thielbar et al. 2020 [68] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Tramontano et al. 2018 [69] Y 1   1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
Turolla et al. 2013 [70] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Viana et al. 2014 [71] Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 9
Yin et al. 2014 [72] Y 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
  1. **PEDro items: 1 Random allocation; 2 Concealed allocation; 3 Baseline Comparability; 4 Blind subjects; 5 Blind therapists; 6 Blind assessors; 7 Adequate follow-up; 8 Intention to treat analysis; 9 Between-group statistical comparisons; 10 Point estimates and variability