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Table 2 Within-group and between-group comparisons of lower limb motor function and balance in the RAGT group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20) at preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up

From: Hybrid robot-assisted gait training for motor function in subacute stroke: a single-blind randomized controlled trial

  RAGT Control Pb value Cohen’s d post Cohen’s d 3-month
Pre Post 3-month follow-up Pa value Pre Post 3-month follow-up Pa value
MMT 1.7 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 1.2 < 0.00* 1.8 ± 1.3 2.5 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.0 < 0.00* 0.645 0.14 0.18
AROM 25.0 ± 31.0 43.8 ± 35.6 61.8 ± 34.4 < 0.00* 26.5 ± 28.6 41.8 ± 35.1 60.3 ± 27.8 < 0.00* 0.873 0.06 0.05
FMA-LE 7.0 ± 4.7 12.5 ± 5.8 16.5 ± 7.2 < 0.00* 8.1 ± 4.9 11.5 ± 6.3 13.2 ± 5.9 < 0.00* 0.014* 0.17 0.50
FMA-total 11.4 ± 5.4 17.3 ± 6.9 21.4 ± 8.1 < 0.00* 11.7 ± 5.7 15.8 ± 7.3 17.8 ± 7.0 < 0.00* 0.002* 0.21 0.48
POMA balance subscore 3.2 ± 3.5 8.1 ± 5.6 12.1 ± 4.6 < 0.00* 3.9 ± 3.7 7.9 ± 5.8 11.6 ± 4.8 < 0.00* 0.562 0.04 0.11
PASS 17.1 ± 7.3 25.4 ± 8.3 31.2 ± 5.7 < 0.00* 17.3 ± 9.3 23.6 ± 9.6 30.5 ± 6.7 < 0.00* 0.548 0.20 0.11
BBS 8.2 ± 8.4 22.8 ± 16.7 38.6 ± 15.5 < 0.00* 8.8 ± 9.7 22.4 ± 17.8 34.5 ± 17.0 < 0.00* 0.394 0.02 0.25
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± standard deviation
  2. MMT manual muscle test, AROM active range of motion, FMA-LE Fugl–Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity (Hip/Knee/Ankle), FMA-total Fugl–Meyer Assessment of Lower Extremity total (Hip/Knee/Ankle, coordination/speed), POMA balance subscore, Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment Balance, PASS Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke, BBS Berg Balance Scale
  3. *P < 0.05 by repeated-measures ANOVA for the within-group and between-group comparisons
  4. aWithin-group difference at preintervention and postintervention
  5. bBetween-group difference at preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up