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Table 2 Group mean (± SD) positive, negative and total stance-phase work done at the hip, knee and ankle (intact limb only) joints when using rigid ( rig F) and hydraulic ( hy A-F) ankle-foot devices

From: Walking speed related joint kinetic alterations in trans-tibial amputees: impact of hydraulic 'ankle’ damping

  Speed normalised   Absolute  
  hyA-F rigF p value hyA-F rigF p value
  J/(kg.m/s)   J.kg-1  
Intact hip total work 0.21 (0.12) 0.25 (0.09) 0.19 (foot) 0.24 (0.11) 0.24 (0.07) 0.36 (foot)
0.24 (0.11) 0.26 (0.11) 0.014 (speed) 0.25 (0.11) 0.27 (0.12) 0.027 (speed)
0.29 (0.15) 0.36 (0.18) 0.57 (interact) 0.36 (0.13) 0.45 (0.36) 0.44 (interact)
Intact hip positive work +0.18 (0.11) +0.18 (0.08) 0.74 (foot) +0.17 (0.08) +0.16 (0.07) 0.73 (foot)
+0.16 (0.10) +0.16 (0.09) 0.42 (speed) +0.18 (0.09) +0.17 (0.08) 0.09 (speed)
+0.17 (0.11) +0.20 (0.15) 0.41 (interact) +0.22 (0.11) +0.27 (0.24) 0.41 (interact)
Intact hip negative work -0.08 (0.04) -0.08 (0.04) 0.21 (foot) -0.07 (0.04) -0.08 (0.05) 0.20 (foot)
-0.06 (0.03) -0.10 (0.07) 0.12 (speed) -0.07 (0.05) -0.10 (0.08) 0.01 (speed)
-0.10 (0.05) -0.13 (0.08) 0.41 (interact) -0.14 (0.06) -0.18 (0.14) 0.48 (interact)
Intact knee total work 0.21 (0.06) 0.22 (0.11) 0.18 (foot) 0.21 (0.08) 0.17 (0.09) 0.46 (foot)
0.18 (0.08) 0.27 (0.12) 0.03 (speed) 0.21 (0.11) 0.20 (0.12) < 0.001 (speed)
0.26 (0.10) 0.28 (0.10) 0.09 (interact) 0.36 (0.16) 0.38 (0.11) 0.09 (interact)
Intact knee positive work +0.06 (0.03) +0.06 (0.03) 0.19 (foot) +0.06 (0.03) +0.06 (0.03) 0.30 (foot)
+0.06 (0.03) +0.09 (0.05) 0.030 (speed) +0.06 (0.04) +0.09 (0.05) 0.001 (speed)
+0.08 (0.04) +0.09 (0.04) 0.06 (interact) +0.12 (0.06) +0.12 (0.06) 0.07 (interact)
Intact knee negative work -0.15 (0.04) -0.16 (0.09) 0.21 (foot) -0.14 (0.06) -0.15 (0.09) 0.27 (foot)
-0.12 (0.06) -0.18 (0.08) 0.07 (speed) -0.15 (0.08) -0.20 (0.08) < 0.001 (speed)
-0.18 (0.06) -0.19 (0.06) 0.21 (interact) -0.25 (0.10) -0.27 (0.11) 0.25 (interact)
Intact ankle total work 0.34 (0.18) 0.37 (0.20) 0.032 (foot) 0.32 (0.12) 0.33 (0.17) 0.25 (foot)
0.35 (0.18) 0.39 (0.21) 0.011 (speed) 0.40 (0.19) 0.40 (0.19) 0.08 (speed)
0.24 (0.11) 0.26 (0.13) 0.42 (interact) 0.33 (0.17) 0.36 (0.22) 0.64 (interact)
Intact ankle positive work +0.17 (0.12) +0.19 (0.14) 0.17 (foot) +0.17 (0.12) +0.17 (0.12) 0.54 (foot)
+0.20 (0.11) +0.22 (0.13) 0.036 (speed) +0.23 (0.12) +0.23 (0.13) 0.10 (speed)
+0.13 (0.08) +0.14 (0.11) 0.89 (interact) +0.19 (0.13) +0.21 (0.19) 0.67 (interact)
Intact ankle negative work -0.17 (0.07) -0.18 (0.08) 0.003 (foot) -0.15 (0.06) -0.16 (0.06) 0.15 (foot)
-0.15 (0.09) -0.17 (0.09) 0.024 (speed) -0.17 (0.09) -0.17 (0.08) 0.63 (speed)
-0.11 (0.05) -0.12 (0.05) 0.24 (interact) -0.15 (0.06) -0.13 (0.07) 0.98 (interact)
Residual hip total work 0.22 (0.19) 0.21 (0.17) 0.44 (foot) 0.20 (0.14) 0.19 (0.14) 0.004 (foot)
0.22 (0.19) 0.22 (0.18) 0.68 (speed) 0.24 (0.17) 0.22 (0.16) 0.003 (speed)
0.24 (0.17) 0.23 (0.16) 0.82 (interact) 0.31 (0.16) 0.27 (0.16) 0.28 (interact)
Residual hip positive work +0.15 (0.17) +0.15 (0.14) 0.75 (foot) +0.14 (0.12) +0.13 (0.12) 0.57 (foot)
+0.15 (0.16) +0.15 (0.14) 0.92 (speed) +0.17 (0.14) +0.15 (0.12) 0.009 (speed)
+0.15 (0.14) +0.16 (0.13) 0.51 (interact) +0.19 (0.14) +0.19 (0.12) 0.046 (interact)
Residual hip negative work -0.07 (0.04) -0.06 (0.04) 0.26 (foot) -0.06 (0.04) -0.06 (0.04) 0.14 (foot)
-0.07 (0.05) -0.07 (0.06) 0.26 (speed) -0.08 (0.06) -0.07 (0.07) 0.002 (speed)
-0.08 (0.05) -0.07 (0.05) 0.43 (interact) -0.11 (0.07) -0.09 (0.07) 0.45(interact)
Residual knee total work 0.08 (0.09) 0.08 (0.09) 0.052 (foot) 0.13 (0.14) 0.09 (0.09) 0.044 (foot)
0.10 (0.09) 0.07 (0.08) 0.62 (speed) 0.13 (0.15) 0.09 (0.10) < 0.001 (speed)
0.08 (0.09) 0.06 (0.06) 0.32 (interact) 0.21 (0.24) 0.13 (0.14) 0.32 (interact)
Residual knee positive work +0.01 (0.01) +0.006 (0.01) 0.91 (foot) +0.005 (0.01) +0.005 (0.01) 0.99 (foot)
+0.007 (0.01) +0.003 (0.00) 0.90 (speed) +0.006 (0.01) +0.003 (0.00) 0.47 (speed)
+0.005 (0.01) +0.007 (0.01) 0.35 (interact) +0.007 (0.01) +0.010 (0.01) 0.36(interact)
Residual knee negative work -0.08 (0.09) -0.07 (0.09) 0.036 (foot) -0.07 (0.09) -0.07 (0.08) 0.025 (foot)
-0.09 (0.09) -0.06 (0.07) 0.48 (speed) -0.10 (0.09) -0.06 (0.07) 0.45 (speed)
-0.07 (0.09) -0.05 (0.06) 0.29 (interact) -0.10 (0.13) -0.07 (0.08) 0.19 (interact)
Intact limb (all joints) total work 0.76 (0.21) 0.84 (0.28) 0.047 (foot) 0.73 (0.24) 0.77 (0.27) 0.15 (foot)
0.77 (0.27) 0.92 (0.24) 0.36 (speed) 0.88 (0.28) 0.97 (0.33) < 0.001 (speed)
0.80 (0.25) 0.90 (0.26) 0.50 (interact) 1.08 (0.38) 1.24 (0.67) 0.51 (interact)
Residual limb (all joints) total work 0.30 (0.20) 0.29 (0.17) 0.12 (foot) 0.27 (0.16) 0.26 (0.15) 0.024 (foot)
0.32 (0.24) 0.28 (0.18) 0.96 (speed) 0.35 (0.22) 0.29 (0.16) < 0.001 (speed)
0.32 (0.18) 0.29 (0.17) 0.48 (interact) 0.41 (0.19) 0.36 (0.18) 0.11 (interact)
  1. Results are listed downwards - slow, customary speed and fast. Values normalised to walking speed are in the left-hand columns and absolute values in the right-hand columns. Statistically significant differences are in bold.