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Table 6 Significant main effects and speed interaction effects of inertia added to the ankle

From: The effect of directional inertias added to pelvis and ankle on gait

Measure   Speed 0.3 kg 1.55 kg 3.50 kg
Energetics VO2 [ml/min/kg]   10.96 ± 1.92 11.58 ± 1.93 12.26 ± 1.96*+
4.5 km/h 13.56 ± 2.40 14.46 ± 2.21 15.65 ± 2.45*+
Gait parameters Double stance time [s]   0.32 ± 0.04 0.30 ± 0.04* 0.29 ± 0.04*
Swing time left [s]   0.43 ± 0.02 0.47 ± 0.02* 0.50 ± 0.03*
(0.07)
1.5 km/h 0.49 ± 0.05 0.54 ± 0.05* 0.60 ± 0.05*
(0.1)
4.5 km/h 0.37 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.01* 0.41 ± 0.04*
(0.04)
Stride length [m]   0.66 ± 0.05 0.66 ± 0.05 0.62 ± 0.04
Joint- & Segment angles Back frontal flexion RoM [deg] 1.5 km/h 5.73 ± 1.91 5.69 ± 2.11 6.23 ± 2.37
Back frontal flexion RoM [deg] 4.5 km/h 8.98 ± 1.61 9.48 ± 2.24 8.48 ± 1.91
Back sagittal flexion RoM [deg] 1.5 km/h 2.83 ± 0.89 2.66 ± 0.97 2.76 ± 1.11
Back sagittal flexion RoM [deg] 4.5 km/h 2.91 ± 0.53 3.29 ± 0.97 3.57 ± 0.96
Knee flexion RoM [deg]   59.47 ± 3.82 58.82 ± 3.42 55.35 ± 3.48*+
Plantar flexion RoM [deg]   26.70 ± 2.55 25.25 ± 4.00 23.90 ± 2.07*
Segment Motions Pos pelvis AP RoM [mm]   50.31 ± 6.45 56.15 ± 9.10* 64.05 ± 14.12*
Acc pelvis AP RoM [m/s2]   3.71 ± 0.67 4.01 ± 0.73* 4.27 ± 0.73*+
(0.53)
4.5 km/h 4.72 ± 1.08 5.32 ± 1.10* 5.70 ± 1.04*+
(0.59)
Pos HAT AP RoM [mm]   38.99 ± 6.89 41.59 ± 7.00 47.75 ± 11.84
Acc HAT AP RoM [m/s2]   2.35 ± 0.35 2.52 ± 0.38 2.63 ± 0.42*
4.5 km/h 3.08 ± 0.53 3.36 ± 0.58 3.47 ± 0.58*
(0.37)
Pos HAT ML RoM [mm]   63.28 ± 15.93 68.45 ± 19.77 65.75 ± 14.79
Pos Foot AP RoM [mm]   720.82 ± 56.69 712.15 ± 48.15 692.17 ± 51.53*
AccLFoot AP RoM [m/s2]   41.07 ± 3.61 37.38 ± 3.10* 33.48 ± 3.31*+
(3.99)
1.5 km/h 22.65 ± 2.14 21.18 ± 1.54 19.15 ± 3.15*
4.5 km/h 59.49 ± 6.16 53.58 ± 5.05* 47.82 ± 3.89*+
(4.33)
EMG Soleus – terminal stance   0.21 ± 0.07 0.20 ± 0.06 0.19 ± 0.08*
  tibialis anterior - inital swing   0.18 ± 0.03 0.18 ± 0.03 0.16 ± 0.03*+
  tibialis anterior – mid swing   0.15 ± 0.03 (0.02) 0.14 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.03*
  1. * Significantly different from 0.3 kg (p < 0.05).
  2. + Significantly different from 1.55 kg (p < 0.05).
  3. Bold: change larger than the average intra subject variability indicated between brackets at baseline.
  4. Loaded conditions are compared to baseline condition. The table lists significant main effects (independent of speed) and significant interaction effects with speed, but only at speeds that are significant in pair wise comparisons.