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Table 7 Significant main effects and speed interaction effects of inertia added to the pelvis in AP direction

From: The effect of directional inertias added to pelvis and ankle on gait

Measure   Speed X 0.7 kg X 4.3 kg X 10.2 kg
Energetics      
Gait parameters Stance time left [s] 1.5 km/h 1.43 ± 0.17 1.40 ± 0.16 1.41 ± 0.16
4.5 km/h 0.74 ± 0.04 0.74 ± 0.03 0.73 ± 0.03
Joint- & Segment angles Hip abduction RoM [deg]   12.24 ± 2.59 11.84 ± 2.40* 11.32 ± 2.27*+
Hip flexion RoM [deg]   37.04 ± 2.98 36.82 ± 2.54 36.14 ± 2.44*+
Knee flexion RoM [deg]   61.35 ± 5.54 61.06 ± 4.86 59.93 ± 4.67
Back sagittal flexion RoM [deg]   3.94 ± 0.96 4.54 ± 1.08* 5.29 ± 1.36*+
1.5 km/h 4.25 ± 0.97 4.63 ± 0.99 4.98 ± 0.92*
4.5 km/h 3.64 ± 1.16 4.45 ± 1.61* 5.60 ± 2.07*+
(1.56)
Segment Motions Pos pelvis AP RoM [mm]   49.14 ± 6.05 46.75 ± 5.35 43.03 ± 5.29*+
Acc pelvis AP RoM [m/s2]   3.88 ± 0.58 3.56 ± 0.41 3.06 ± 0.33*+
(0.56)
4.5 km/h 5.04 ± 0.80 4.62 ± 0.62 3.85 ± 0.59*+
(0.57)
Pos HAT AP RoM [mm]   37.37 ± 4.26 36.10 ± 4.89 33.89 ± 4.76*
Acc HAT AP RoM [m/s2]   2.67 ± 0.29 2.55 ± 0.24 2.24 ± 0.14*+
(0.36)
1.5 km/h 1.78 ± 0.28 1.66 ± 0.13 1.52 ± 0.13*+
4.5 km/h 3.55 ± 0.38 3.45 ± 0.40 2.95 ± 0.19*+
(0.35)
EMG Vastus lateralis - mid stance 1.5 km/h 0.23 ± 0.05 0.23 ± 0.05* 0.22 ± 0.06
  Vastus lateralis - terminal swing 4.5 km/h 0.06 ± 0.03 0.05 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.03*
  Gastrocnemius medialis - mid stance   0.13 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04*
  Soleus - mid stance   0.13 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04* 0.14 ± 0.04*
  1. * Significantly different from 0.3 kg (p < 0.05).
  2. + Significantly different from 1.55 kg (p < 0.05).
  3. Bold: change larger than the average intra subject variability indicated between brackets at baseline.
  4. Loaded conditions are compared to baseline condition. The table lists significant main effects (independent of speed) and significant interaction effects with speed, but only at speeds that are significant in pair wise comparisons.