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Table 2 Shoulder stability and mobility outcome after robotic training

From: Pilot study of a robotic protocol to treat shoulder subluxation in patients with chronic stroke

(A) Admission (B) Discharge (C) Followup Confidence Intervala Significanceb
A. Measure for shoulder stability (mean in mm ± SEM)
56.7 (0.3) 26.7 (0.2) 33.3 (0.3) B-A 1.32-2.68 <0.001
C-A 0.69-24.2 0.001
B. modified Ashworth Scale (mean ± SEM)
9 (0.9) 7 (0.9) 8 (1.0) B-A 0.84 -3.28 0.001
C-A -4.74-1.77 0.428
C. Fulg- Meyer Assessment, shoulder/elbow (mean ± SEM)
13.6 (1.2) 15.0 (1.3) 15.0 (1.3) B-A -2.32- -0.35 0.007
C-A -2.43- -0.24 0.015
D. Motor power of scapular (mean ± SEM)
10 (0.9) 12 (1.0) 11 (1.1) B-A -3.16 - 0.62 0.003
C-A -2.64 - -0.25 0.016
E. Motor power of rotator cuff muscles (mean ± SEM)
10 (0.6) 11 (0.8) 11 (0.8) B-A -2.17 - -0.61 0.001
C-A -1.84 - -0.05 0.037
  1. A. Shoulder stability as measured in mm. (single examiner, blinded to design) demonstrated significant decrease in subluxation between Admission (A) and Discharge (B) evaluations, and between Admission and Follow up (C) evaluations. There was no significant change in the degree of subluxation between Discharge and Follow up exams (3 months later).
  2. B. Spasticity assessed with the Modified Ashworth Scale was significantly decreased in between Admission (A) and Discharge (B).
  3. C. Upper extremity Fugl Meyer Motor Score was significantly improved between Admission (A) and Discharge (B) evaluations, and between Admission and Follow up (C) evaluations. The increased motor function was stable and robust between discharge and follow up exams (3 months later).
  4. D. Motor Power (standard 0-5 scale) for scapular muscles summed the scores over serratus anterior, upper middle and lower trapezius, levator scapulae, major and minor rhomboid, and demonstrated significant improvement from Admission to Discharge that persisted on follow up 3 months later.
  5. E. Motor Power (standard 0-5 scale) for rotator cuff muscles summed the scores for deltoid, coracobrachialis,teres major and minor, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis major and minor, latissimus dorsi, and demonstrated significant improvement from Admission to Discharge that persisted at followup 3 months later.
  6. aAdjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni.
  7. bThe mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.