Skip to main content

Table 4 Outcomes per training modality and features of HRI

From: Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

  % of groups improved at body functions % of groups improved at activity level
Training modality Multiple modalities Only that modality Features of HRI when improved Multiple modalities Only that modality Features of HRI when improved
Passive 56 (19 of 34) 50 (2 of 4) P (2 of 2) 44 (10 of 23) 33 (1 of 3) P (1 of 1)
Passive-mirrored 43 (6 of 14) 0 (0 of 2)   15 (2 of 13) 0 (0 of 2)  
Assistive 57 (16 of 28) 33 (2 of 6) NC (2 of 2) 38 (6 of 16) 0 (0 of 3)  
Active-assistive 58 (36 of 62) 58 (14 of 24) TA (5 of 14) EMG (4 of 14) PF + SDG (3 of 14) PF + SDG + NC (1 of 14) CF (1 of 14) 48 (15 of 31) 36 (4 of 11) TA (2 of 4) CF (1 of 4) NC (1 of 4)
Path guidance 86 (6 of 7) N/A   50 (2 of 4) N/A  
Corrective 80 (4 of 5) N/A   50 (1 of 2) N/A  
Resistive 64 (14 of 22) 0 (0 of 1)   42 (5 of 12) N/A  
Active 61 (17 of 28) N/A   60 (9 of 15) N/A  
Feature of HRI Multiple features Only that feature   Multiple features Only that feature  
Passive 56 (19 of 34) 60 (3 of 5)   44 (10 of 23) 50 (2 of 4)  
Passive-mirrored 43 (6 of 14) 0 (0 of 1)   15 (2 of 13) 0 (0 of 1)  
Moving attractor 43 (3 of 7) 0 (0 of 1)   33 (2 of 6) 0 (0 of 1)  
Triggered assistance 60 (15 of 25) 50 (7 of 14)   43 (6 of 14) 44 (4 of 9)  
Assistive Constant force 42 (5 of 12) 20 ( 1 of 5)   17 (1 of 6) 50 (1 of 2)  
Emg-proportional 100 (8 of 8) 100 (5 of 5)   33 (1 of 3) 33 (1 of 3)  
Pushing force (in case of delay) 60 (9 of 15) N/A   33 (2 of 6) N/A  
Spring-damper guidance 61 (11 of 18) N/A   38 (3 of 8) N/A  
Tunnels or walls 100 (2 of 2) N/A   0 (0 of 1) N/A  
Spring against movement 60 (6 of 10) 0 (0 of 1)   20 (1 of 5) N/A  
Damper against movement 75 (6 of 8) N/A   60 (3 of 5) N/A  
Not clear 46 (12 of 26) 50 (5 of 10)   50 (7 of 14) 100 (2 of 2)  
  1. Abbreviations:
  2. Human Robot Interactions (HRI):
  3. P = Passive
  4. PM = Passive-Mirrored
  5. S = Spring against movement
  6. MA = Moving attractor
  7. TA = Triggered assistance
  8. PF = Pushing force (in case of delay)
  9. EMG = EMG-proportional
  10. T = Tunnels
  11. SDG = Spring-damper guidance
  12. ACF = Assistive constant force
  13. D = Damper against movement
  14. NC = Not Clear