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Table 4 Facilitation of corticospinal excitability between four conditions

From: Facilitation of corticospinal excitability by virtual reality exercise following anodal transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers and subacute stroke subjects

Conditions Rest During exercise Immediate after exercise or tDCS 10 min after exercise 20 min after exercise
Active wrist exercise (A) Healthy 100 785 ± 553 125 ± 6 117 ± 7 112 ± 6
VR wrist exercise (B) Healthy 100 805 ± 340 139 ± 11 127 ± 8 117 ± 8
Stroke 100 475 ± 297 130 ± 7 122 ± 6 112 ± 5
VR wrist exercise following tDCS (C) Healthy 100 768 ± 337 152 ± 12 140 ± 12 131 ± 12
Stroke 100 502 ± 297 141 ± 11 130 ± 8 120 ± 6
tDCS without exercise (D) Healthy 100 - 132 ± 13 121 ± 8 117 ± 9
Stroke 100 - 120 ± 7 115 ± 6 109 ± 5
Overall P value Healthy Condition: <0.001, time: <0.001, condition X time: <0.001
  Stroke Condition: <0.001, time: <0.001, condition X time: <0.001
C Vs A Healthy - - <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
C Vs B* Healthy - - 0.01 0.01 <0.001
Stroke - - <0.001 0.01 0.01
C Vs D* Healthy - - <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Stroke - - <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
B Vs A* Healthy - - <0.001 0.002 0.41
B Vs D* Healthy - - 0.003 0.03 4.96
Stroke - - <0.001 <0.001 0.14
A Vs D* Healthy - - 0.10 0.63 0.36
  1. Values were transformed into a percentage of the MEP at rest. Values are mean ± SD.
  2. *Post hoc P values were corrected by Bonferroni method.
  3. VR, virtual reality, tDCS, transcranial direct current stimulation, −, not available.