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Table 2 Glossary of terms concerning type of assistance

From: A survey on robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation

Term Description
Active device A device able to move limbs. Under such condition, this device requires active actuators which may increase the weight. It may also apply to subjects completely unable to move their limb.
Passive device A device unable to move limbs, but may resist the movement when exerted in the wrong direction. This type of device may only be used for rehabilitation of subjects able to move their limbs. It is usually lighter than active device since it possesses no actuators other than brakes.
Haptic device A device that interfaces with the user through the sense of touch. In most cases it provides some amount of resistive force, often also some other sensation (e.g. vibration). It is sometimes also able to generate specific movements. However, the force it generates is usually small. Haptic devices are commonly used in rehabilitation settings with virtual environments.
Coaching device A device that neither assists nor resists movement. However, it is able to track the movement and provide feedback related to the performance of the subject. As haptic devices, coaching devices are also commonly used in rehabilitation settings with virtual environments.
Active exercise An exercise in which subjects actively move their limb, although some assistance of the device may be provided. Such type of the exercise may be performed using any of the above listed types of devices.
Passive exercise An exercise in which the subject remains passive, while a device moves the limb. This type of exercise requires an active device. Continuous passive motion (CPM) training is an example of passive exercise with active devices.