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Table 2 F test and P-value of ANCOVA with a repeated measures (n = 98) design comparing mean value of stride time while walking at self-selected speed with and without backward counting, adjusted for walking speed (covariate) and subject effect (n = 49).

From: Stride-to-stride variability while backward counting among healthy young adults

Source of variation Sum of square df|| Mean square F P-value
Backward counting* 0.001 1 0.0008 1.50 0.227 †
Subjects ‡ 0.431 48 0.0090 17.71 0.000
Log (Stride velocity) § 0.124 1 0.1242 244.80 0.000
Residual 0.024 47 0.0005   
Total 1.008 97 0.0104   
  1. *: Backward counting coded as a binary variable (0 = walking alone, 1 = walking with backward counting), †: Box conservative estimate, ‡: Variability between subjects §: Normalized by taking the logarithmic transformation, ||: Degree of freedom