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Table 2 Univariate ANOVA statistics for planned comparison of pre- to post-training

From: Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

  Outcome Measure Training Group Mean value before training (SD) Mean change in value after training (SD) p value session p value session × group p value session × impairment
Biomechanical Evaluation   Active-assist 0.689 (0.21) 0.139 (0.11)    
  FRS < 0.001* 0.844 0.286    
   Free reaching 0.547 (0.14) 0.123 (0.09)    
   Active-assist 0.538 (0.14) 0.218 (0.09)    
  FSS < 0.001* 0.898 0.999    
   Free reaching 0.430 (0.12) 0.211 (0.13)    
   Active-assist 1.114 (0.32) 0.005 (0.25)    
  Stiffness[N/cm] 0.830 0.419 0.006*    
   Free reaching 1.400 (0.32) -0.046 (0.13)    
Free Reaching Evaluation   Active-assist 0.768 (0.30) 0.011 (0.09)    
  FRU   0.443 0.687 0.710   
   Free reaching 0.768 (0.19) 0.024 (0.07)    
   Active-assist 1.618 (0.33) -0.108 (0.18)    
  Straightness ratio 0.033* 0.862 0.204    
   Free reaching 1.591 (0.30) -0.085 (0.25)    
   Active-assist 2.189 (0.91) 0.385 (0.62)    
  Smoothness [# speed peaks per sec] 0.128 0.002* 0.086    
   Free reaching 2.671 (1.16) -0.725 (0.72)    
Functional Evaluation   Active-assist 3.5 (0.9) 0.2 (0.4)    
  CM Score 0.014* 0.414 0.246    
   Free reaching 3.2 (1.0) 0.3 (0.5)    
   Active-assist 16.49 (14.5) -6.28 (11.48)    
  0.048* 0.470 0.438     
   Free reaching 10.44 (6.0) -2.69 (2.02)    
  1. Session represents evaluation time, with the three pre-training and the three post-training evaluations contrasted in the planned comparison. Training group, session, and impairment level were used in all ANOVAs. Headings with "×" between the factors represent interaction effects.
  2. * p < 0.05