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Table 1 Patients' characteristics (n = 10, 9 men and 1 woman)

From: The effects of high frequency subthalamic stimulation on balance performance and fear of falling in patients with Parkinson's disease

  Median (range)
Age (years) 66 (59–69)
Height (m) 1.76 (1.66–1.90)
Weight (kg) 77 (60–95)
Duration of disease (years) 18 (10–22)
Duration of DBS treatment (months) 37 (15–70)
DBS parameter settings1  
   Right (amplitude: V, pulsewidth: μs, frequency; Hz) 3.3 (2.5–4.3), 60 (60–90), 145 (100–185)
   Left (amplitude: V, pulsewidth: μs, frequency; Hz) 3.4 (2.2–4.3), 60 (60–90), 130 (100–185)
Localization of the contacts with negative polarity  
   Right 11.7 (10.4–13.1) mm lateral to the midsagittal plane through the intercommissural line (IC), 3.4 (3.0–4.0)mm posterior to the midpoint of IC and 2.1 (1.0–5.6)mm inferior to IC.
   Left 11.4 (9.6–13.0) mm lateral, 3.5 (3.3–5.2) mm posterior, and 2.6 (1.2–4.2) mm inferior to IC. The median length of IC was 24.8 (23.5–25.6) mm
L-dopa equivalents (mg/day)2 416 (242–989)
Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)3 112 (75–187)
UPDRS part III4 total score DBS OFF: 41.0 (35.0–83.5), DBS ON: 21.5 (11.0–30.5)
  n
Occupation 10 retired (6 due to age, 4 due to disease)
Comorbidity 2 (1 patient had lumbar degenerative changes, 1 had hypertonia and a previous heart infarct)
Postural hypotension5 None
Prior surgery related to Parkinson's disease6 2 (1 pallidotomy, 1 thalamotomy + earlier DBS surgery)
Pain symptoms 6 (2 hip pain, 2 back pain, 2 shoulder pain)
Assistive device (walking indoors) None
Assistive device (walking outdoors) 1 (cane)
Falls within the past 6 months7 7 patients reported falls (range 1–15 falls), whereof 5 patients reported at least 2 falls
  3 patients reported no falls: 1 experienced near falls every week, and 2 every month (whereof one of the two had fractured twice due to falls, but the last incidence was a year before the study)
  1. DBS: Deep Brain Stimulation; DBS OFF: stimulation turned off; DBS ON: stimulation turned on.
  2. 1 Polarity: Eight patients had monopolar stimulation and two patients bipolar, which applied both to the left and right hemisphere. 2 L-dopa equivalents are calculated as in one of our previous studies [13]. 3 Higher scores on the PASE [28, 29] reflect higher level of physical activity. The mean PASE score norm for healthy men (age 65–69) is 144 and the mean PASE score in this study was 123. 4 UPDRS part III: Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, motor examination [14]. Each item is graded 0–4, and the maximum total score is 108 points (higher scores reflect more severe motor symptoms). 5 Clinical symptoms, combined with a systolic blood pressure drop by at least 20 mmHg (from lying to standing). 6 The patient with prior DBS surgery had exchanged the target from (bilateral) Globus Pallidus internus to STN. 7 A fall was defined as an unexpected event in which the patients came to rest on the ground, floor or other lower level. A near fall was defined as: a fall initiated but arrested by support from a wall, railing, other person etc. [3].