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Table 3 Anatomical bone embedded frames

From: Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

SEGMENT AXIS JOINT COORDINATE SYSTEM
Tibia y The two malleoli and the head of fibula define a quasi frontal plane, the y axis is parallel to the line connecting the midpoint between LM and MM and the projection of the tibial tuberosity (TT) on this plane with its positive direction upward.
  x The line connecting lateral and medial malleoli (LM e MM) and y axis define a plane: x is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction forward (obtained as product between the two above described lines).
  z Product between axis x and y.
  Origin Midpoint between LM and MM.
Hindfoot z Parallel to the line connecting ST and peroneal tubercle PT with its positive direction from left to right.
  y The line connecting calcaneus (CA) and substentaculum talii (ST) and the z axis define a plane: y axis is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction upward (obtained as product between the two above described lines).
  x Product between axis y and z.
  Origin CA.
Midfoot z Parallel to the line connecting NT and C with its positive direction from left to right.
  y The line connecting (NT), and fifth metatarsal base (VMB) and z axis define a plane: y axis is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction from proximal to distal segment (obtained as product between the two above described lines).
  x Product between axis y and z.
  Origin Midpoint between NT and C.
Forefoot z Parallel to the line connecting IMH and VMH with its positive direction from left to right.
  y The line connecting VMH and IIT and the z axis define a plane: y is orthogonal to the plane with its positive direction upward (obtained as product between the two above described lines).
  x Product between y and z.
  Origin Midpoint between IMH e VMH.
Foot z Parallel to the line connecting IMH e VMH with its positive direction from left to right.
  y CA, IMH and VMH define a plane; the line connecting IIT and CA belong to a plane perpendicular to the previous one; z axis is parallel to the line intersection between the two planes with its positive direction forward.
  x Product between axis y and z.
  Origin CA.