From: Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

SEGMENT | AXIS | JOINT COORDINATE SYSTEM |
---|---|---|

Tibia | y | The two malleoli and the head of fibula define a quasi frontal plane, the y axis is parallel to the line connecting the midpoint between LM and MM and the projection of the tibial tuberosity (TT) on this plane with its positive direction upward. |

x | The line connecting lateral and medial malleoli (LM e MM) and y axis define a plane: x is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction forward (obtained as product between the two above described lines). | |

z | Product between axis x and y. | |

Origin | Midpoint between LM and MM. | |

Hindfoot | z | Parallel to the line connecting ST and peroneal tubercle PT with its positive direction from left to right. |

y | The line connecting calcaneus (CA) and substentaculum talii (ST) and the z axis define a plane: y axis is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction upward (obtained as product between the two above described lines). | |

x | Product between axis y and z. | |

Origin | CA. | |

Midfoot | z | Parallel to the line connecting NT and C with its positive direction from left to right. |

y | The line connecting (NT), and fifth metatarsal base (VMB) and z axis define a plane: y axis is orthogonal to that plane with its positive direction from proximal to distal segment (obtained as product between the two above described lines). | |

x | Product between axis y and z. | |

Origin | Midpoint between NT and C. | |

Forefoot | z | Parallel to the line connecting IMH and VMH with its positive direction from left to right. |

y | The line connecting VMH and IIT and the z axis define a plane: y is orthogonal to the plane with its positive direction upward (obtained as product between the two above described lines). | |

x | Product between y and z. | |

Origin | Midpoint between IMH e VMH. | |

Foot | z | Parallel to the line connecting IMH e VMH with its positive direction from left to right. |

y | CA, IMH and VMH define a plane; the line connecting IIT and CA belong to a plane perpendicular to the previous one; z axis is parallel to the line intersection between the two planes with its positive direction forward. | |

x | Product between axis y and z. | |

Origin | CA. |