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Table 1 Main results about the forward flexion movement.

From: Effect of obesity and low back pain on spinal mobility: a cross sectional study in women

   C O cLBP  
   Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ANOVA
Sagittal Plane      
Forward trunk inclination (αFTI) [deg] START (*) 1.2 (2.7) 5.0 (2.5) 4.0 (3.5) § p = 0.0093
  MAX (**) 119.4 (9.2) 112.1 (7.5) 103.9 (14.8) p = 0.0056
  ROM (*,**) 118.2 (9.3) 107.1 (7.5) 99.8 (14.6) § p = 0.0041
Anterior pelvic tilt (α1) [deg] START (*,**) 11.2 (2.4) 20.9 (7.8) 23.9 (8.6) p = 0.0003
  MAX 72.7 (6.5) 75.2 (13.7) 77.1 (12.4) NS
  ROM 61.4 (6.2) 54.3 (10.4) 53.2 (9.5) NS
Angle related to lordosis (αL) [deg] START (**,***) 30.2 (5.2) 32.7 (8.6) 41.0 (12.9) p = 0.023
  MAX (*,**,***) -21.3 (2.6) -14.6 (5.1) -5.5 (8.5) § p = 0.0001
  ROM 51.5 (5.0) 47.3 (5.9) 46.5 (15.9) NS
Lumbar movement (α2) [deg] START (**) -1.7 (5.1) -7.8 (13.5) -15.3 (14.2) § p = 0.022
  MAX (**,***) 22.8 (5.2) 19.2 (11.0) 10.9 (11.3) p = 0.01
  ROM 24.5 (5.6) 27.0 (12.2) 26.1 (12.2) NS
Angle related to kyphosis (αK) [deg] START 23.7 (6.4) 25.5 (4.1) 24.9 (5.9) NS
  MAX (*) 34.6 (8.2) 27.2 (5.5) 29.0 (7.4) p = 0.048
  ROM (*,**) 10.9 (7.2) 1.8 (5.4) 4.1 (6.4) p = 0.004
Thoracic movement (α3) [deg] START -10.2 (6.7) -9.0 (14.6) -4.9 (9.6) NS
  MAX (*,**) 33.9 (5.2) 25.5 (6.6) 23.4 (9.2) p = 0.003
  ROM (*,**) 44.1 (8.5) 34.5 (10.0) 28.2 (9.6) p = 0.001
  1. Trunk, pelvis, lumbar and thoracic values were used in case of forward flexion of the considered segment, negative values otherwise. Negative values of the angle related to lordosis were used to highlight a kyphosis curve of the lordosis segment.
  2. § Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA,
  3. * differences between C and O (p < 0.05)
  4. ** differences between C and LBP (p < 0.05)
  5. *** differences between O and LBP (p < 0.05).