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Table 2 Description of the balance scales and tests

From: Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR) for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury



Berg balance scale (BBS)

A 14-item scale (measured from 0 to 4) designed to measure the balance of a person in a clinical setting. The scale ranges from 0 to 56.

Brunel balance assessment (BBA)

A functional balance measurement for people with a wide range of abilities; it has been specifically tested for post-stroke use in a clinical setting. The scale ranges from 0 to 14.

Anterior reach test (ART)

Maximum distance that the hand can be extended forward. The patient extends one arm to an angle of 90 degrees, while standing with legs about shoulder- width apart. The test can be run in sitting (ART-sit) or standing (ART-stand) position.

Timed stair test (TST)

Time required to climb and to descend five 8 cm high steps with handrails on both sides.

Stepping test (ST)

Times that the patient is able to place one foot onto a 7.5 cm high step and then back down to the floor within 15 seconds. The action is repeated as fast as possible during the test for the paretic and non-paretic leg. The step is placed 5 cm in front of the individual's feet.

1-minute walking test (1MWT)

Walking distance within a minute along an 8-shaped path that is 20 m long defined on a straight and nonslip surface.

10-m walking test (10MT)

Time to walk 10 m on a straight and nonslip surface.

Time "up and go" test (TUG)

Stop-watch measurement of the time taken for a return trip to a pole placed 5 m ahead, with the subject starting from a seated position in a chair.

30-s sit-to-stand test (30SST)

Repetitions of rising exercise from a sitting position on a bench.

  1. A brief description of the scales and tests used in the study. The Berg and Brunel scales are widely used to assess the balance condition in a clinical setting. The tests are identified with the acronyms in brackets. The TST, 1MWT, 10MT, TUG, 30SST are commonly used in the literature. The ART and ST are defined above. The tests are identified with the acronyms in brackets.