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Table 3 Mean values ± standard deviation of performance indexes (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01). Reported statistics refer to the comparison between admission and discharge in the patients’ group

From: Positive effects of robotic exoskeleton training of upper limb reaching movements after stroke

Performance Index Contralateral movement
   Admission Discharge p Healthy Control
PI1 Total time (s) 4.02 ±1.74 3.11 ±1.18 0.012* 1.41 ± 0.72
PI2 Total smoothness 4.19 ±3.17 2.33 ±2.76 0.004** 0.19 ± 0.4
CCI1 AD-PD muscles 1.64 ± 0.93 2.49 ± 1.94 0.05* 7.17 ±2.99
CCI2 TB-BP muscles 1.50 ± 0.77 1.41 ± 1.02 0.91 0.45 ±0.27
Performance Index Central movement
Admission Discharge p Healthy Control
PI1 Total time (s) 4.10 ±2.10 3.07 ±1.08 0.007** 1.32 ± 0.72
PI2 Total smoothness 5.15 ±4.76 2.74 ±2.30 0.006** 0.24 ± 0.54
CCI1 AD-PD muscles 2.24 ± 0.80 3.08 ± 2.21 0.03* 7.9 ±2.92
CCI2 TB-BP muscles 1.39 ± 0.84 1.37 ± 0.87 0.84 0.41 ±0.29
Performance Index Ipsilateral movement
Admission Discharge p Healthy Control
PI1 Total time (s) 5.25 ±2.84 3.15 ±1.14 0.0004** 1.64 ± 1.04
PI2 Total smoothness 7.00 ±6.69 2.63 ±2.56 0.001** 0.62 ± 0.74
CCI1 AD-PD muscles 1.24 ± 0.64 1.89 ± 1.41 0.02* 4.87 ±2.75
CCI2 TB-BP muscles 1.31 ± 0.95 1.36 ± 1.22 0.81 0.46 ±0.32