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Table 1 Spatiotemporal gait parameter central tendency (mean) and variability (standard deviation) by floor surface and instructed gait speed

From: Healthy younger and older adults control foot placement to avoid small obstacles during gait primarily by modulating step width

Dependent variable No obstacles floor surface Visible obstacles floor surface Hidden obstacles floor surface
Slow Preferred Fast Slow Preferred Fast Slow Preferred Fast
Central Tendencya [Intersubject Mean (Standard Deviation) of Intrasubject Means]
 Gait Speed (% Leg Length/s) * 106.9 (30.5) 154.5 (27.6) 249.5 (43.7) 106.1 (26.7) 144.3 (27.5) 228.2 (44.2) 102.9 (27.1) 148.0 (28.1) 223.5 (46.8)
 Step Length (% Leg Length) * 71.0 (12.3) 85.6 (10.0) 104.8 (11.4) 71.5 (11.2) 83.5 (10.1) 102.1 (11.6) 68.9 (11.4) 83.8 (11.1) 100.1 (12.4)
 Step Width (% Leg Length) 14.6 (3.7) 14.0 (3.1) 13.9 (2.8) 15.2 (3.2) 14.1 (2.9) 14.7 (3.0) 15.2 (3.3) 14.3 (3.2) 14.6 (3.1)
 Step Time (s) * 0.69 (0.10) 0.56 (0.05) 0.42 (0.05) 0.70 (0.10) 0.59 (0.06) 0.15 (0.03) 0.70 (0.11) 0.57 (0.05) 0.46 (0.06)
Variabilityb [Intersubject Mean (Standard Deviation) of Intrasubject Standard Deviations]
 Gait Speed (% Leg Length/s) * 6.5 (2.6) 7.5 (4.7) 10.6 (7.8) 6.4 (4.0) 6.5 (4.0) 8.9 (6.2) 7.2 (3.7) 6.3 (2.8) 11.2 (6.2)
 Step Length (% Leg Length) * 3.9 (1.0) 3.9 (1.3) 4.6 (1.2) 5.5 (3.2) 5.8 (3.8) 5.8 (2.7) 4.5 (1.2) 3.6 (0.8) 4.9 (1.6)
Step Width (% Leg Length) †
 Younger men 3.8 (1.1) 3.8 (0.8) 4.2 (1.2) 3.6 (1.2) 4.1 (0.8) 4.6 (1.1) 4.2 (1.3) 4.1 (1.0) 4.3 (0.7)
 Younger Women 3.4 (0.6) 3.7 (0.8) 4.3 (1.2) 4.3 (1.6) 4.8 (2.0) 4.0 (1.0) 3.7 (1.1) 3.7 (0.7) 4.4 (1.3)
 Older Men 3.9 (0.8) 4.1 (1.0) 4.8 (0.8) 4.8 (1.9) 5.3 (1.7) 4.9 (1.5) 3.7 (1.0) 4.5 (0.8) 4.9 (1.3)
 Older Women 4.6 (1.8) 5.2 (1.1) 4.7 (1.3) 8.1 (2.7) 8.2 (2.6) 8.9 (3.0) 4.8 (1.4) 5.1 (1.0) 5.3 (0.9)
Step Time (s) * 0.04 (0.03) 0.02 (0.02) 0.02 (0.01) 0.05 (0.03) 0.03 (0.02) 0.02 (0.01) 0.05 (0.03) 0.03 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01)
  1. a Normal distributions tested via repearted-measures linear mixed models.
  2. b Non-normal distributions tested via Kruskall-Wallace.
  3. * p<0.0001 effect of instructed gait speed.
  4. † p<0.0001 effect of subject group.
  5. Data also shown by subject group if effect of subject group significant (p<0.0031).