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Table 3 Comparison between parameters of Visually Guided Reaching task in paretic and non-paretic arms

From: Clinical usefulness and validity of robotic measures of reaching movement in hemiparetic stroke patients

Parameters Paretic arm, median (range) Non-paretic arm, median (range) Wilcoxon signed rank test
p-values Effect size
Posture Speed [×10−2 m/s] 0.58 (0.13−1.37) 0.35 (0.16−0.61) <0.001 0.79
Reaction Time [s] 0.47 (0.32−0.67) 0.33 (0.25−0.42) <0.001 0.87
No Reaction Time 5 (0–60) 0 (0–13) <0.001 0.76
Initial Direction Error [×10−2 rad] 25.07 (3.71−94.67) 4.70 (2.20−10.43) <0.001 0.87
Initial Distance Ratio 0.43 (0.15−0.89) 0.89 (0.54−1) <0.001 −0.87
Initial Speed Ratio 0.84 (0.59−1) 1 (0.93−1) <0.001 −0.85
Speed Maxima Count 4.36 (2.16−10) 2.38 (1.63−3.63) <0.001 0.85
Min Max Speed [×10−2 m/s] 4.50 (0.84−19.27) 1.37 (0.52−4.33) <0.001 0.86
Movement Time [s] 2.10 (1.02−3.67) 1.15 (0.82−1.62) <0.001 0.87
Path Length Ratio 1.83 (1.11−5.95) 1.12 (1.05−1.42) <0.001 0.86
Max Speed [×10−2 m/s] 19.29 (7.81−37.51) 22.45 (12.52−38.50) 0.003 −0.42
No Movement End 15 (0–63) 0 (0–13) <0.001 0.78
  1. n = 49. The data of participants who failed to reach the target during the trial (No Movement End = 64) (n = 6) or lacked any of the twelve parameters (n = 1) were excluded from data analysis