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Table 1 Gait parameters in single-task and dual-task conditions, and dual-task effect

From: Does texting while walking really affect gait in young adults?

  Walking Walking and texting p-value DTEb
  (single task) (dual task)  
Spatio-temporal parameters     
 Gait speed (m/s) 1.30 ± 0.12 1.17 ± 0.10 <0.001 10.0 ± 3.8 %
 Cadence (strides/min) 54.9 ± 2.9 52.4 ± 3.9 <0.001 4.6 ± 3.1 %
 Stride length (m) 1.42 ± 0.14 1.34 ± 0.11 <0.001 5.6 ± 3.5 %
 Double support (% GC) 11.2 ± 2.7 13.3 ± 2.3 <0.001 23 % ± 20 %
Stride-to-stride variability     
 CVa of stride time (%) 1.86 ± 0.42 2.33 ± 0.63 0.008 28 ± 34 %
Sub-phases of stance (duration)     
 H, Heel contact (% GC) 6.6 ± 2.0 6.9 ± 3.3 0.4 -
 F, Flat foot contact (% GC) 26.4 ± 4.0 30.0 ± 4.3 <0.001 14 ± 8 %
 P, Push off (% GC) 22.6 ± 4.0 19.8 ± 3.4 <0.001 12 ± 6 %
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation over the population. The left and right side values were averaged
  2. aCV: Coefficient of Variation = (standard deviation/mean) × 100
  3. bDTE: Dual Task Effect = [|(single-task \( - \) dual-task)|/single-task]×100