Skip to main content

Table 4 Validity, reliability and responsiveness of robot-aided assessments of lower limb functions

From: Robot-aided assessment of lower extremity functions: a review

Measure Instrument Properties Study and population tested
   Validity Inter-rater reliability Intra-rater reliability Responsiveness  
pROM Lokomat - - - - -
Isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3 Pro dynamometer - Biodex Medical Systems Inc., Shirley, NY, USA) - Ankle DF: ICC ≥ 0.938
SEM = 1.4°
Ankle DF: ICC ≥ 0.930
SEM = 0.8°
MDC = 2.2°-3.3° [34], 15 stroke patients
Manual spasticity evaluator - ρ = 0.95 ICC = 0.86 - [45], 12 children with CP, 5 able-bodied (AB) adults
Anklebot Mean absolute error over two planes ≤1° - - - [49], validation vs electrogoniometer using a mock-up foot
Ankle assessment device - - Ankle DF: ICC = 0.846
Ankle PF: ICC = 0.958
Ankle DF: MDC = 3.27°
Ankle PF: MDC = 3.81°
[232], 9 AB subjects
aROM - - - - - No studies found
Muscle strength Isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3) - - Isometric peak torque control subjects: ICC ≥ 0.92; SEM ≤ 25.1 Nm
Peak torque patients, contralesional limb
ICC ≥ 0.86, SEM ≤ 23.9 Nm
- [90], 17 subjects with stroke, 13 AB subjects
Lokomat, isometric test - Hip: ICC ≥ 0.87, SEM ≤ 11.2 Nm; Knee: ICC ≥ 0.85, SEM ≤ 7.9 Nm. Hip: ICC ≥ 0.79, SEM ≤ 10.5 Nm; Knee: ICC ≥ 0.84, SEM ≤ 8.2 Nm. - [10], 14 subjects with neurological movement disorders, 16 AB subjects
Ankle assessment device - - Ankle DF: ICC = 0.949
Ankle PF: ICC = 0.858
Ankle DF: MDC = 1.69 Nm
Ankle PF: MDC = 1.68 Nm
[232], 9 AB subjects
Proprioception Modified Biodex chair, TTDPM test - - Knee frontal plane: ICC ≥ 0.40 - [104], 17 AB subjects
Chair with knee actuator, TTDPM test - OA: ICC = 0.91, SEM = 2.13°, AB: ICC = 0.89, SEM = 0.43° OA: ICC = 0.91, SEM = 2.26°, AB: ICC = 0.86, SEM = 0.39° - [113] 24 subjects with OA, 26 AB subjects
Lokomat, JPR test vs clinical score:
Hip: ρ = 0.507,
Knee: ρ = 0.790
- SCI, Hip: ICC = 0.55, Knee: ICC = 0.882
AB, Hip: ICC = 0.493, Knee: ICC = 0.656
- [106], 23 SCI and 23 AB subjects
Lokomat, TTDPM test vs manual kinesthesia assessment: left hip, r = −0.71; left knee, r = −0.86; right hip, r = −0.47; right knee, r = −0.57 - AB, hip: ICC = 0.88 left, ICC = 0.94 right; knee ICC = 0.90 left, ICC = 0.91 right.
SCI, hip: ICC = 0.97 left, ICC = 0.96 right; knee: ICC = 0.95 left, ICC = 0.96 right
- [114], 17 SCI and 17 AB subjects
Manual kinesthesia assessment: 1 point for each correct movement detection
Abnormal joint synergies - - - - - No studies found
Passive ankle stiffness Manual spasticity evaluator - Ankle DF 4°: r = 0.81 Ankle DF 4°: ICC = 0.82 - [45], 12 children with CP
Ankle perturbator Repeated testing of known static torque: ICC = 0.994 ICC = 0.767-0.943 - - [233], 10 AB subjects
Ankle assessment device - - Ankle DF 20°: ICC = 0.863
Ankle DF 30°: ICC = 0.865
Ankle DF 20°: MDC = 0.0686 Nm/°
Ankle DF 30°: MDC = 0.1323 Nm/°
[232], 9 AB subjects
Active ankle stiffness Ankle perturbator - - r > 0.8 - [164], 11 AB subjects
Ankle perturbator - Between-trial: ICC = 0.76–0.99 and between-day: ICC = 0.64–0.95 - - [165], 38 children with CP and 35 AB subjects
Walking function/Gait pattern Exosuit: strain sensors Mean absolute error ≤ 8° - - - [61], 1 AB subject
Soft ankle orthosis: strain sensors, IMUs Mean error strain sensor: 0.255 ± 1.63°
Mean error IMUs: 0.135 ± 2.85°
- - - [204], 1 AB subject
  1. ρ indicates Spearman’s rank correlation, r Pearson’s correlation, DF dorsiflexion, PF plantarflexion