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Table 5 Parameter reference range established from healthy controls

From: Do children and adolescent ice hockey players with and without a history of concussion differ in robotic testing of sensory, motor and cognitive function?

Visually guided reach Failure Normative distribution of reference range: % Reference range: R Reference range: L
 Posture speed (m/s) 1-sided: faster is abnormal 0–95 0.00074–0.00562 0.00105–0.00625
 Reaction time (s) 1-sided: slower is abnormal 0–95 0.207–0.332 0.214–0.330
 Initial direction error (rad) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0197–0.0887 0.01972–0.0792
 Initial distance ratio 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.6771–1 0.8258–1
 Initial speed ratio 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.9044–1 0.9182–1
 Speed maxima count 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 1.5526–3.2000 1.525–2.974
 Minimum maximum speed difference (m/s) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.00503–0.0330 0.00531–0.03428
 Movement time (s) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.7665–1.388 0.694–1.297
 Path length ratio 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 1.0422–1.2892 1.0511–1.3345
 Max speed (m/s) 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.16405–0.52206 0.1856–0.6092
Arm position matching Failure Normative distribution of reference range: % Reference range: R Reference range: L
 Variability X (m) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0139–0.0861 0.0163–0.1017
 Variability Y (m) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0058–0.0287 0.0075–0.0331
 Variability XY (m) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0178–0.08892 0.0189–0.1060
 Contraction/expansion ratio X 2-sided: under or over shoot 2.5–97.5 0.2313–1.300 0.1979–1.3720
 Contraction/expansion ratio Y 2-sided: under or over shoot 2.5–97.5 0.7658–1.1623 0.8136–1.1636
 Contraction/expansion ratio XY 2-sided: under or over shoot 2.5–97.5 0.2489–1.4161 0.1601–1.4422
 Shift X (m) 2-sided: smaller or larger 2.5–97.5 −0.1200–0.0596 −0.123–0.052
 Shift Y (m) 2-sided: smaller or larger 2.5–97.5 −0.0377–0.02391 −0.03992–0.01962
 Shift XY (m) 2-sided: smaller or larger 5–100 0.00866–0.29611 0.01205–0.2531
 Absolute Error X 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0135–0.1655 0.0187–0.1659
 Absolute Error Y 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.0061–0.0372 0.0076–0.0399
 Absolute Error XY 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.02033–0.16927 0.0259–0.1698
Object hit Failure Normative distribution of reference range: % Reference range: NA
 Total hits 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 120–216 NA
 Hits with left 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 50–116 NA
 Hit with right 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 62–118 NA
 Hand bias hits 2-sided: negL vs posR 2.5–97.5 −0.1579–0.2814 NA
 Miss bias 2-sided: L vs R side of workspace 2.5–97.5 −0.0556–0.0665 NA
 Hand transition 2-sided: L vs R side of workspace 2.5–97.5 −0.0764–0.0504 NA
 Hand selection overlap 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0779–0.3009 NA
 Median error 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 50–63 NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 1-sided: slower is abnormal 5–100 0.2073–0.5849 NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 1-sided: slower is abnormal 5–100 0.2330–0.5848 NA
 Hand speed bias 2-sided: L vs R 2.5–97.5 −0.1545–0.2024 NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0871–0.2021 NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0951–0.2155 NA
 Movement area bias 2-sided: L vs R 2.5–97.5 −0.1163–0.3828 NA
Object hit & avoid Failure Normative distribution of reference range: % Reference range: NA
 Total hits 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 77–159 NA
 Hits with left 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 31–74 NA
 Hit with right 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 39–88 NA
 Miss bias 2-sided: L vs R side of workspace 2.5–97.5 −0.0667–0.0664 NA
 Hand transition 2-sided: L vs R side of workspace 2.5–97.5 −0.0923–0.0528 NA
 Hand selection overlap 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0430–0.2344 NA
 Median error 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 43–67 NA
 Hand speed L (m/s) 1-sided: slower is abnormal 5–100 0.1469–0.4088 NA
 Hand speed R (m/s) 1-sided: slower is abnormal 5–100 0.1506–0.4443 NA
 Movement area L (m^2) 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0797–0.1933 NA
 Movement area R (m^2) 1-sided: smaller is abnormal 5–100 0.0866–0.2112 NA
 Distractor hits L 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0–16 NA
 Distractor hits R 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0–16 NA
 Distractor hits total 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0–31 NA
Trail Making B Failure Normative distribution of reference range: % Reference range: NA
 Total time (s) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 24–92 NA
 Dwell time (s) 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 9–49 NA
 Time ratio 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0.3551–1.7837 NA
 Error count 1-sided: larger is abnormal 0–95 0–6 NA
  1. Summary of the healthy control reference range for parameters from the five KINARM robot tasks; includes identification of failure related to performance (NA not applicable)