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Table 2 Significant main effectsa in the training sessions with an effect size ≥ 0.02

From: Learning to use a body-powered prosthesis: changes in functionality and kinematics

Dependent variable Within/between subject factor Mean (SE) 95 % CI lower-upper F p η G 2
Reach time (s) Session 1 0.96 (.04) 0.85–1.08 11.63 .00 .06
2 0.87 (.03) 0.77–0.96
3 0.85 (.03) 0.76–0.95
4 0.85 (.04) 0.75–0.95
5 0.85 (.04) 0.74–0.95
Group COM 0.89 (.06) 0.73–1.05 4.27 .03 .26
IG 0.75 (.06) 0.59–0.91
DG 0.99 (.06) 0.82–1.16
Plateau time (s) Group COM 0.49 (.03) 0.41–0.57 16.71 .00 .41
IG 0.35 (.03) 0.27–0.42
DG 0.57 (.03) 0.49–0.66
Hook closing time (s) Session 1 0.86 (.06) 0.70–1.02 20.36 .00 .20
2 0.69 (.04) 0.59–0.79
3 0.65 (.03) 0.56–0.75
4 0.61 (.03) 0.53–0.70
5 0.56 (.04) 0.45–0.68
Peak velocity hook closing (mm/s) Session 1 134.68 (8.29) 111.10–158.26 5.19 .007 .04
2 145.19 (10.60) 115.04–175.34
3 143.83 (8.50) 119.66–168.00
4 158.27 (11.09) 126.71–189.83
5 163.21 (13.32) 125.30–201.12
Object Solid 157.06 (10.20) 128.04–186.08 14.43 .00 .12
HO 151.27 (9.38) 124.58–177.96
MO 145.50 (9.81) 117.60–173.40
LO 142.32 (9.01) 116.69–167.95
Compression when grasping (mm) Object HO 0.55 (.04) 0.44–0.66 402.65 .00 .83
MO 2.47 (.11) 2.15–2.80
LO 5.02 (.19) 4.48–5.55
Compression during manipulation (mm) Object HO 0.93 (.07) 0.74–1.12 591.65 .00 .91
MO 5.34 (.18) 4.84–5.84
LO 7.30 (.16) 6.84–7.75
Force when grasping (N) Group COM 3.63 (.19) 3.24–4.03 4.21 .03 .09
IG 2.86 (.19) 2.46–3.25
DG 3.33 (.20) 2.90–3.76
Object HO 2.14 (.15) 1.72–2.57 61.60 .00 .39
MO 3.51 (.16) 3.05–3.97
LO 4.17 (.16) 3.72–4.61
Force during manipulation (N) Object HO 3.66 (.26) 2.92–4.39 100.96 .00 .59
MO 7.58 (.25) 6.88–8.29
LO 6.06 (.13) 5.68–6.44
  1. SE standard error of the mean, 95% CI lower-upper 95% Confidence Interval, Lower bound and Upper bound, s second, mm millimeter, COM combination group, IG indirect grasping group, DG direct grasping group, Solid solid object, HO high-resistance object, MO moderate-resistance object, LO low-resistance object
  2. aA main effect of object shows the means per object over all sessions and all groups; in case of a main effect of session the means per session over all objects and all groups are shown, whereas a main effect of group shows the means per group over all sessions and all objects