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Table 2 Summary of included studies (n=10)

From: Robot-assisted gait training (Lokomat) improves walking function and activity in people with spinal cord injury: a systematic review

Study Design Participants Intervention Outcome measures
Alcobendas-Maestro 2012 RCT n = 80
Time since injury (months) = 3 - 6
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = C2 to T12 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 30 min x 5/wk x 6 wk
Con = OGT 60 min x 5/wk x 6 wk
Both = Usual PT
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Functional level = WISCI II, FIM-L
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Spasticity = MAS
• Pain = VAS
• Timing: 0, 8 wk
Duffell 2015 RCT n = 56
Time since injury (months) > 12
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = above T10 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 30~45 min x 3/wk x 4 wk
Con = no intervention
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Balance = TUG
• Timing: 0, 1, 2, 4 wk
Esclarin-Ruz 2014 RCT n = 88
Time since injury (months) < 6
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = C2 to L3 (UMN+LMN)
Exp = RAGT 30 min x 5/wk x 8 wk
Con = OGT 30 min x 5/wk x 8 wk
Both = Usual PT 60 min x 5/wk x 8 wk
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Functional level = WISCI II, FIM-L
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Timing: 0, 8 wk
Field-Fote 2011 RCT n = 74
Time since injury (months) > 12
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = At or above T10 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 60 min x 5/wk x 12 wk
Con1 = BWS treadmill-based training with manual assistance 60 min x 5/wk x 12 wk
Con2 = BWS treadmill-based training with stimulation 60 min x 5/wk x 12 wk
Con3 = OGT with stimulation with BWS 60 min x 5/wk x 12 wk
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 2-min walk test
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Timing: 0, 12 wk
Hornby 2005 RCT n = 35
Time since injury (months) < 6 (14–180 days)
ASIA scale = B, C, D
Level of injury = Above
T10 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 30 min x 3/wk x 8 wk
Con1 = BWS treadmill-based training with manual assistance 30 min x 3/wk x 8 wk
Con2 = OGT with BWS 30 min x 3/wk x 8 wk
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Functional level = WISCI II, FIM-L
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Spasticity = MAS
• Balance = TUG
• Timing: 0, 8 wk
Labruyere 2014 RCT
Cross-over
n = 9
Time since injury (months) > 12
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = C4 -T11 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 45 min x 4/wk x 4 wk
Con = Strength 45 min x 4/wk x 4 wk
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Functional level = WISCI II
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Pain = VAS
• Balance = BBS
• Timing: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 wk
Niu 2014 RCT n = 40
Time since injury (yrs) = Exp 8.9±9.9, Con 7.5±5.5
ASIA scale = B, C, D
Level of injury = above T10 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 60 min x 3/wk x 4 wk
Con = no intervention
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Balance = TUG
• Timing: 0, 1, 2, 4 wk
Shin 2014 RCT n = 60
Time since injury (months) < 6
ASIA scale = D
Level of injury = UMN
Exp = RAGT 40 min x 3/wk x 4 wk
Con = OGT 30 min x 3/wk x 4 wk
Both = Usual PT 30 min x 2/wk x 4 wk
• Functional level = WISCI II, SCIM3, AMI
• Leg strength = LEMS
• Timing: 0, 4 wk
Tang 2014 RCT n = 30
Time since injury (months) = 6.3
ASIA scale = D
Level of injury = T8 to L3 (UMN+LMN)
Exp = RAGT 40 min
Con = Bike 40 min
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Agility = probe reaction time
• Timing: before and after the intervention
Varoqui 2014 RCT n = 30
Time since injury (yrs) = Exp 11.80±2.54, Con 8.09±1.89
ASIA scale = C, D
Level of injury = above T10 (UMN)
Exp = RAGT 60 min x 3/wk x 4 wk
Con = no intervention
• Speed = 10-m walk test
• Distance = 6-min walk test
• Balance = TUG
• Timing: 0, 4 wk
  1. Exp experimental group, Con control group, RAGT robotic-assisted gait training, OGT over-ground training), Strength, BWS body weight-supported gait training, WISCI walking index for spinal cord injury, LEMS lower extremities motor scale, FIM-L Functional Independence Measure – Lokomotion, MAS modified Ashworth scale, VAS visual analog scale, TUG timed up and go, AMI ambulatory motor index