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Table 5 Median and IQR of primary and secondary clinical outcomes at baseline (T0), post-treatment (T1) and follow-up (T2). + Friedman test, p < 0.05; * Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.025 (Bonferroni corrected)

From: Increasing upper limb training intensity in chronic stroke using embodied virtual reality: a pilot study

  Baseline (T0)
Median
(IQR)
Post-treatment (T1)
Median
(IQR)
Follow-up (T2)
Median
(IQR)
Friedman test Wilcoxon signed-rank test
p-value p-value
T0 to T1
p-value
T0 to T2
FMA-UE 42.0
(24.75 to 53.00)
44.5
(26.25 to 54.75)
45.5
(27.0 to 57.0)
0.007+ 0.131 0.035
AROM (in °)
 Shoulder flexion 105.0
(63.8 to 118.8)
117.5
(71.3 to 133.8)
117.5
(77.5 to 131.3)
0.010+ 0.065 0.007*
 Elbow extension −8.5
(−10.0 to −1.3)
−7.5
(−10.0 to 0.0)
−5.0
(−10 to 0)
0.420   
 Wrist extension 35.0
(6.3 to 55.0)
37.5
(8.8 to 55.0)
45.0
(22.5 to 60.0)
0.095   
 Forearm supination 62.5
(5.0 to 78.8)
57.5
(12.5 to 83.8)
67.5
(12.5 to 80.0)
0.131   
 Forearm pronation 62.5
(0.0 to 83.8)
87.5
(56.3 to 90.0)
87.5
(57.5 to 90.0)
0.032+ 0.027 0.128
mMRCS
 Shoulder flexion 3
(3.0 to 3.8)
3.5
(3.0 to 4.0)
3.5
(3.0 to 4.0)
0.156   
 Elbow extension 2.5
(2.0 to 3.0)
3
(2.3 to 3.8)
3
(2.3 to 4.0)
0.074   
 Wrist extension 3
(1.5 to 4.0)
3
(2.3 to 4.0)
3.5
(2.3 to 4.0)
0.174   
 Forearm supination 3
(1.3 to 4.0)
3.5
(1.5 to 4.0)
3.5
(1.5 to 4.0)
0.424   
 Forearm pronation 3
(0.5 to 4.0)
3.5
(2.3 to 4.0)
3.5
(3.0 to 4.0)
0.350   
FIM 121.5
(106.3 to 125.3)
121
(105 to 123)
121.5
(108.8 to 123.8)
1   
VAS
 Shoulder flexion 0
(0 to 6)
1
(0 to 2)
0
(0 to 1.75)
0.368   
 Elbow extension 0
(0 to 4)
0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0.146   
 Wrist extension 0
(0 to 4)
0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0.0498+ 0.103 0.103
 Forearm supination 0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0.135   
 Forearm pronation 0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0
(0 to 0)
0.368