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Table 2 Descriptive and inferential statistics of the primary outcomes (N = 38)

From: Effect of EMG-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation with bilateral arm training on hemiplegic shoulder pain and arm function after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  NMES-BAT (n = 19) TENS-BAT (n = 19) Repeated measure ANOVA
  Pretreatment Post-treatment Follow-up Pretreatment Post-treatment Follow-up   F P Partial η2
NRS-FRS at rest 0.68 ± 1.46 0 ± 0* 0 ± 0 0.42 ± 0.90 0.21 ± 0.54* 0.42 ± 0.84 Interaction 2.61 0.11 0.07
group 0.40 0.53 0.01
time 4.65 0.03* 0.11
NRS-FRS during shoulder AROM 3.89 ± 3.00 0.95 ± 1.18* 0.63 ± 0.83*# 3.11 ± 2.16 1.63 ± 1.38* 1.95 ± 1.84* Interaction 5.84 0.01# 0.14
group 0.69 0.41 0.02
time 32.60 <0.001* 0.48
NRS-FRS during shoulder PROM 5.79 ± 2.10 2.26 ± 2.05* 2.11 ± 1.79*# 5.16 ± 1.54 3.05 ± 1.27* 3.84 ± 2.04*^ Interaction 11.83 <0.001# 0.25
group 1.48 0.23 0.04
time 79.27 <0.001* 0.69
BPI-SF question 3 worst pain 5.95 ± 1.99 2.58 ± 2.17*# 2.11 ± 1.76*# 5.21 ± 2.18 3.95 ± 1.58* 4.05 ± 2.04 Interaction 10.84 <0.001# 0.23
group 2.61 0.12 0.07
time 42.19 <0.001* 0.54
BPI-SF question 9 pain interference 1.10 ± 1.20 0.32 ± 0.54* 0.15 ± 0.30* 0.93 ± 0.84 0.44 ± 0.56* 0.42 ± 0.61* Interaction 1.64 0.21 0.04
group 0.14 0.71 0.01
time 20.62 <0.001* 0.36
  1. All data are presented as mean ± SD. Abbreviations: NMES neuromuscular electrical stimulation, TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, BAT bilateral arm training, NRS-FRS Numerical Rating Scale supplemented with a Faces Rating Scale, BPI-SF short form of the Brief Pain Inventory, AROM active range of motion, PROM passive range of motion
  2. *Significantly different from the pretreatment time point (P < 0.05)
  3. ^Significantly different from the post-treatment time point (P < 0.05)
  4. #Significantly different from the TENS-BAT group (P < 0.05)