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Table 3 Descriptive and inferential statistics of the secondary outcome measures (N = 38)

From: Effect of EMG-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation with bilateral arm training on hemiplegic shoulder pain and arm function after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  NMES-BAT (n = 19) TENS-BAT (n = 19) Repeated measure ANOVA
Pretreatment Posttreatment Follow-up Pretreatment Posttreatment Follow-up   F P Partial η2
FMA-UL
total score (0–66)
41.68 ± 20.17 45.74 ± 17.73* 46.05 ± 17.03* 45.37 ± 17.62 47.00 ± 16.06* 46.68 ± 16.45* Interaction 3.04 0.08 0.08
group 0.11 0.74 0.003
time 12.60 <0.001* 0.26
FMA-UL proximal score (0–42) 29.47 ± 10.35 32.47 ± 7.97* 32.74 ± 7.38* 31.00 ± 7.78 32.21 ± 6.84* 31.89 ± 7.23* Interaction 3.39 0.06 0.09
group 0.003 0.96 0.00
time 12.98 <0.001* 0.27
FMA-UL
distal score (0–24)
12.21 ± 10.47 13.26 ± 10.30* 13.32 ± 10.12 14.37 ± 10.26 14.79 ± 9.54* 14.79 ± 9.55 Interaction 0.75 0.42 0.02
group 0.28 0.60 0.01
time 3.88 0.05* 0.10
Pain-free passive ROM (degree)
shoulder abduction 140.26 ± 39.35 162.37 ± 23.42* 171.58 ± 14.73*# 121.84 ± 42.63 146.32 ± 34.27* 138.68 ± 35.62* Interaction 2.93 0.08 0.08
group 5.23 0.03# 0.13
time 26.37 <0.001* 0.42
shoulder flexion 146.05 ± 34.38 166.84 ± 17.73* 172.11 ± 13.67* 141.84 ± 30.29 159.21 ± 22.44* 154.74 ± 25.36* Interaction 1.86 0.18 0.05
group 1.93 0.17 0.05
time 19.81 <0.001* 0.36
shoulder external rotation 57.63 ± 21.17 70.00 ± 17.40* 74.74 ± 11.96* 55.26 ± 21.44 71.32 ± 15.97* 67.11 ± 17.82* Interaction 1.79 0.18 0.05
group 0.32 0.58 0.009
time 24.25 <0.001* 0.40
shoulder internal rotation 67.63 ± 15.49 72.63 ± 11.83 76.32 ± 10.65*# 66.32 ± 21.01 66.32 ± 16.90 62.11 ± 17.10 Interaction 4.74 0.01# 0.12
group 2.57 0.12 0.07
time 0.85 0.43 0.02
  1. All data are presented as mean ± SD. Abbreviations: NMES neuromuscular electrical stimulation, TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, BAT bilateral arm training, FMA-UL the upper-limb subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, ROM range of motion
  2. *Significantly different from the pretreatment (P < 0.05)
  3. #Significantly different from the TENS-BAT group (P < 0.05)